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3-4/2002 - Tożsamość strefy podmiejskiej / Identification of Suburban Area

AK34 2002   Nr 3-4/2002, vol. 5

Tożsamość strefy podmiejskiej
Identification of Suburban Area



Fenomenologiczna metoda badania krajobrazu miasta
Phenomenological Metod of Town Landscape Researching

Jan Rylke


In the article entitled “Phenomenological method of town landscape researching” according to the author the landscape has been researched for the means of its suitability for intended actions which so far have resulted in a choice of specific research tools and techniques. The whole of the landscape as a uniform body has not been researched because of its complicated and dynamic structure. Phenomenological method of landscape researching is a step in the direction of entire landscape research. Urban landscape, because of its external and internal configuration, densification, mobility and changeability of scenery requires diversification of research methods. In the article it was stressed that phenomenological method of landscape researching can be an effective method all the more that nowadays a description of the town is mainly its functional description not a formal one. A functional description was a characteristic one for town-planning from the previous century when a strict connection of function and form was acknowledged. Earlier town-planning dealt with the form of a town. Functional description could operate with a calibrated view as a basic record, spatially differentiating individual functions assigned to particular town districts. A formal description can not be limited to the view, it will tend to turn to recording techniques elaborated in history for the record of a spatial systems form. The author draws the readers attention to the fact that a superficial glance at carried out town landscape views allows us to state the foreground of all full views which defines traffic and infrastructure operating in it. The second plan is architectonic elevations, monuments, trees and far views. The third plan is buildings and shape of their crowns with the sky as a background. These plans are mostly layered with parallel bands whose height defines the centre of the view orientating vision. The number of views, even in residential parts of a town is limited by density of the urban space and unattractiveness, fortuity of town-planning compositions. In perspective, having deeply researched carried out views, a chance appears to receive interesting results.

Krajobraz niedostrzegany
Invisible Landscapes
Michael Cregan


Tytuł jest nawiązaniem do trudności w postrzeganiu krajobrazu. Krajobraz najczęściej dostrzegany jest jako dekoracja albo wystrój przestrzeni. Zapomina się o jego niematerialnej stronie, głębokim kontekście ukrytym przed spojrzeniami. Krajobraz powinien być rozumiany jako proces dynamicznych zmian zewnętrznych ale również ukrytych, jako połączenie miejsca i pamięci, siedliska i społeczeństwa. Jeśli zamyka się krajobraz w ramach scenografii i wystroju rola architekta krajobrazu w kształtowaniu przestrzeni zostaje odpowiednio zmniejszona. Architekt krajobrazu musi rozumieć krajobraz jego formy, procesy w nim zachodzące i twórców. Dwa zaprezentowane projekty są ilustracją aspektów w rozumieniu krajobrazu. Pierwszy z nich Lough Rynn zlokalizowany jest w północnej Irlandii, drugi Durrow Abbey znajduje się w jej środkowej części.

Uwarunkowania i kierunki przekształceń strefy podmiejskiej Olsztyna
Conditions and Directions of Transformation Area of Suburban Olsztyn

Krzysztof Młynarczyk
Wanda Łaguna
Małgorzata Kadelska
Wiesława Gadomska


The following general conclusions can be deducted from considerations of the paper entitled Conditions and directions of transformation of the area in suburban Olsztyn:
  • greens systems surrounding Olsztyn city are particularly valuable and fortunately their value has been noticed in strategic and planning documents which are a basis for city development,
  • existing natural limitations strongly conditioned creation and development of Olsztyn suburban zones, however incoherent or spontaneous investment actions which cause deformation of the existing cultural characteristics of the region or settlement unit are often noticed,
  • increasing interest in building areas in towns situated in the so called external green ring which surrounds Olsztyn city; on one hand they allow management of the area inside the city, designating those areas for functions other than dwelling functions (most of all decrease in leisure areas in the centre of the city does not occur), on the other hand because of unskilful shaping of the building they can cause degradation of the countryside,
* an essential part in shaping the sense of bondage or, otherwise, identity with the place in question (a town, a street, building estate, a city, a region) should create educational systems which ought to care for knowledge of present and future generations about specificity of space shaping of an area in question (kind of buildings, its height, slant of roof, materials, way of implementation of
a plot, etc.)

  • it is necessary to create systems of managing space in urban centres together with their external zone where appropriate areas are designated as biologically active and create leisure zones in suburban zones in spite of the lack of naturallimits.

Tożsamość miejsca w krajobrazie strefy podmiejskiej obszaru chronionego
The Identity of Place in Landscape of Suburban Zone of Protected Area
Zbigniew Myczkowski


Problem of protection of cultural heritage and looking for the new identity of landscape in Urban zone and particular – in suburban areas, which are under the format protection as, for example: the landscape parks or nature and landscape reserves – is extremely actual in region of Jurrasic Landscape Parks north and west from city of Cracow and its fringe zone. The rules of sustainable development causes to take care of harmony and beauty of existing landscape from one hand, from another one – the pressure of private and public developers and their investments on the background of so called “spatial planning” appear sometimes as chaotic and disharmonious shape of space. The most popular are the telecommunications satellite towers antennas, which are mostly as dominants or subdominants in local landscape, the extraordinary, contemporary residences, the owners of which used to locate them in “ecological niches”, tourist and agricultural centers and, of course – the highways. In actual legislation – one of most important and common way of making the landscape architectonic guidelines are the expert studies and analysis, which are elaborated in accordance to rules of local management plans on so called “plans of protection” of landscape parka, national parks or nature reserves, arrangements of which are obligatory as the guidelines for local plans or administrative proceeding and pragmatic. The contribution deals with some examples of such studies and expert works and with pragmatic and theoretic conclusions for solution in the light of contemporary landscape management.

Puławy - miasto powstałe z ogrodu
Pulawy - the City Arisen from a Garden

Adam Wołk
Włodzimierz Karpiński
Izabela Giedrojć


Pulawy is a unique city, which was created on a basis of the garden – palace set up. It was designed by Tylman van Gameren in 1671 for Stanislaw Herakliusz Lubomirski. The design is based on the 8 km long axis. During 330 years of existance of this set up on the Vistula river its basic spatial outline was not changed. The family of Prince Czartoryski, who were the owners of Pulawy from 1731, landscaped the garden into its present shape. Thanks to the fascinations of Princess Izabela with ‘English gardens’, Pulawy became the closest example of her experiment with introducing the rules of this style on the elements of a regular garden. The book “Various thoughts on the manner of garden layout” was a theoretical interpretation of the rules propagated by her in landscape design. The downfall of Czartoryski’s fortune and the confiscation of Pulawy estate affected the further development of the garden. During the period of Russian annexation of Pulawy the institute of agriculture and forest research was established here and the garden played the role of an auxiliary farm. After the World War II the profile of the institute changed and the garden ceased to have the research function. Now it belongs to the first class culture monuments and is under the supervision of the State Monument Protection Service. The location of the garden as well as the fast development of the city imposed on the garden a function of a park. In order to prevent the demolition of this landscape monument the Foundation of Support for the Historical Garden of Pulawy was brought into existence in 1997 and was formally registered in 2002.
The Founders are:
  • the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation,
  • High School of Pulawy,
  • the Municipality of the Town of Pulawy – Gmina Miasto Pulawy,
  • the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture,
  • Apiculture Division,
  • the Roman-Catholic Parish of the Ascention of the Saint Mary,
  • Nitrogen Factory – Zaklady Azotowe ‘Pulawy’ S.A.,
  • one private person.
The aim of the Foundation is to restore the former splendour of the garden – its unique landscape layout. For the sake of proper planning the following indications for the spatial policy are being employed:
  • protection and sensible landscaping of the environment through developing of coherent system of protected areas in the surroundings of Pulawy, it’s blending into processes of socio-economic development of the city and the elimination of harmful effects of various factors on the environment,
  • protection of cultural heritage and its integration with actions for environment protection as well as preservation of the favourable features of historically developed, valuable and yet functional – landscape layout of the city.

Ewolucja elementów krajobrazowych i historycznych w miastach położonych na północnym wybrzeżu Morza Czarnego (na przykładzie Odessy)
Evolution of the Landscape and Historical Elements of the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Coast (on Odessa example)
Vadim Lissenko
Nadva Yeksareva
Vladimir Yeksarev


Rozważania nad ewolucją elementów krajobrazowych i historycznych w Odessie pozwalają nam na ukazanie osiągnięć w dziedzinie sztuki ogrodowej w Południowej Palmirze. Niesprzyjajacy klimat i warunki środowiska (skwarne lato, miejscami kamienne wybrzeże, stepowe wiatry, burze piaskowe) były przyczyną tworzenia sztucznych warunków umożliwiających zamieszkanie ludzi. W intensywnie rozwijającym się mieście powstawały miejsca wypoczynku takie jak: Pola Kulikowa, ogród Khadjibey, Botaniczny, Uniwersytecki, Miejski i inne. Ogrody Odessy kształtowane były jako rezerwa lasu, która zaspokajała potrzeby miast z południa. Drzewa wysyłane były nawet do Saint Petersburga, Berlina i Warszawy. Utrata pewnych miejsc w historycznym środowisku miejskim może spowodować bezpowrotne rozbicie unikalnego połączenia starego z nowym, co jest głównym sekretem witalności miasta. Istnieje konieczność integracji działań rekonstrukcyjnych z zachowaniem cech strukturalnych historycznego obszaru miejskiego, z uwzględnieniem dominant, osi widokowych, panoram i perspektyw, porządku architektonicznego i poszczególnych elementów krajobrazu. Z perspektywy czasu ocena stadiów tworzenia antropogenicznego krajobrazu Odessy pozwala na okreslenie historyczno-krajobrazowych podstaw, które powinny stać się bazą dla utworzenia ekologicznego, zdrowego środowiska w historycznym mieście.


Przekształcenia krajobrazu kulturowego Skarpy Warszawskiej
Transformation of Cultural Landscape on Warsaw Escarpment Area

Katarzyna Pluta


The physical and functional structure of Warsaw was determined by natural local environment – the Vistula valley with a high Escarpment on its left bank, where magnificent buildings were located, built in harmony with nature. The Warsaw Escarpment represents the priceless value in town with its green and the landscape open to the horizon, because of its rarity – single eminence on the city area. Contemporarily there are many recommended and more frequently observed methods of planning the cities, which should assure their sustainable development. But to reach that aim it is demanded, that built environment should be treated in the same way as natural. Both environments should be developed equally and simultaneously in the scale which is clear and understandable by citizens. The correct solution of the question for optimal integration of natural and artificial reality is the first problem of models of settlements for sustainable development. So it seems to everybody, that the unique situation of Warsaw needs to be enhanced. There is only one important priority: to preserve the natural landscape of Vistula Valley and Warsaw Escarpment. Opening Warsaw for the Vistula river by realising a continuous system of pedestrian paths in the area of the Escarpment as well as shaping the landscape there, will create a sustainable city form and will make the public greatly value it. It will also become important element in the historic process of the restoration of our capital.


Parki podmiejskie jako element zielonej strefy
Suburban Parks as an Element of Green Belt

Agata Zachariasz


This paper presents some problems of the designing and using of suburban parks as an elements of greenbelts. A selection of Polish and foreign parks differing in size and function (eg. recreational, leisure, sport, natural), acting as urban borders limiting sprawling was chosen to illustrate the problem. Functional programs of such compositions, the principles of usage, and development of trends in their designing were included. The article shows a group of parks originally designed as suburban parks, which became city parks. Problems arising from adaptation to the new city conditions were discussed as well as possible creation of further greenbelts or park’s systems.

Ochrona dziedzictwa kulturowego i przyrodniczego w strefie podmiejskiej i na obrzeżach Sztokholmu
Cultural Heritage and Natural Protection in Suburban Areas and Outskirts of Stockholm Based
Ewa Augustyn-Lendzion


In the article entitled Cultural Heritage and Natural Protection in Suburban Areas and Outskirts of Stockholm Based on an Example of Historical Park- Garden Foundations the attention of the reader was drawn to green areas, both natural and founded by man which are under great concern in The Swedish Kingdom. Particular attention was paid to areas with not only natural value but also constituting cultural heritage on a domestic scale, and sometimes even the European one. Such objects include among others historical parkgarden sets. The author of the present publication discusses in detail two foundations exemplifying different styles of garden art. These are: gardens of Gripsholm Castle and the palace park in Drottningholm. They are situated in Stockholm’s suburban area on Melar lake. Both described sets have great value for Swedish culture. Moreover Drottningholm was included in UNESCO’s relics of the past list in 1991, and Gripsholm Castle is one of ten Swedish Royal castles included in national cultural heritage. Restoration works undertaken in both cases are run with exceptional care and under the surveillance of authorised organs and public opinion.

Założenie pałacowo-folwarczne w Mańczycach
The Group of Palace and Farm Buildings in Mańczyce

Renata Gubańska


The magnates’ manors, which were palaces or mansions with farming facilities, go back in tradition to the middle ages. Similarly to those of other regions, the fate of the Silesian estates was brutally changed by the World War II. After 1945 the majority of land estates became the State property. Since that time, most of them have been gradually and systematically deteriorating, and finally getting destroyed, both in their architectural and space substances. In this paper an effort has been made to draw attention to the cultural values of both the whole space distribution and setting, as well as to the individual architectural items belonging to the group of palace and farm buildings in Mańczyce, and especially to its role in shaping the cultural landscape of Lower Silesian villages. Here, driving along the road you can notice already from a distance the towers emerging from the park which surrounds the residence of Mańczyce. Approaching the village, you can see the other elements: oblong blocks of stables, high roofs of barns, tall walls of granary, as well as the chimney of a distillery – a significant distinguishing element in the scenery. The Mańczyce palace draws two axes: the main one and the lateral one. There is a park in the north part of the main axis and a representative court in its southern side. From the east, the lateral axis is encircled by a yard shaped in an elongated rectangle around which the farm buildings are clustered; and from the west – by a small rectangular yard surrounded by residential buildings. Part of it is the remains of the former workers and servants’ quarters of the beginning of the 20th century. Both, the palace and most of the farm buildings, among others the distillery, have not been managed nor taken care of for the last 20 years. As long as they were in use in a proper or less proper way, their technical conditions were satisfactory. Since they became empty and not used, they have fallen relatively quickly into ruin. At the moment one can only cherish a hope that Mańczyce’s estate as well as many others which remain in a similar situation will regain their former splendour. Maybe this will happen thanks to a rather quick and conscious action in protection of antique group of palace and farm buildings and mansions.

Tereny podmiejskie miasta Wrocławia i ich rola w realiach perspektywicznych XXI w
Suburban areas of Wrocław and their role . in prospective realities of XXIst century

Barbara Stępniewska-Janowska
Aleksandra Lis


The article Suburban Areas of Wrocław city and their part in perspective realities of the 19th century stressed the fact that suburban areas of Wrocław city are a valuable load of cultural landscape which can bring the city manifold benefits and quantitively enriching its listed architecture. Restoring listed and destroyed special sets, palaces, gardens and parks to society they can be designated for international tourism. According to the authors of the publication, tourism should be perceived by self-governments of the cities and historical regions in Poland as one of essential factors of economical development. The authors of the article in a short form present the program whose assignment is preservation of the cultural landscape and restoration of its calculable values manifesting in listed architecture and in spatial sets of gardens and parks. Recreation of the destroyed parts can have the character of slavish reconstruction but can also preserve the old form in a different material and in a modern depiction. They stress that the effort put in both the first and the second form of “rebuilding” can have a positive meaning for the conception of creating a chain of relics of the past, out of suburban residences surrounding Wrocław city and presenting the advantages of a cultural landscape and the results of historical landscape protection in an international ring.

Ocalić od zapomnienia. Rezydencje w służbie miasta Wrocławia
Save from Oblivion. Premises at Service of the City of Wrocław

Renata Grzesiak


In the article Save from oblivion. Residences in the service of Wrocław city based on example assumption of Palace – Park in Goszcz the author stresses that listed palace-garden sets perceived as historical and whose cultural effect constitute refection of many ages of changes which occurs both in garden art and in views and attitude of man towards nature in the past. Presenting historical, scientific, artistic and natural values and also those which are an integral part of the culture landscape – garden relics of the past bear contribution in output and development of the national culture. The author of the publication discusses raised issues in more detail in the example of the baroque assumption of palace – park in Goszcz. She draws particular attention to the fact that listed park-residence sets should be subject to special protection especially as they become more and more valuable with time and they have greater value for tradition and identity of a nation.


Kondycja średniowiecznych miasteczek Mazowsza a wizualny splendor Warszawy
Condition of the Mazovian`s Medieval Towos and Visual Splendour of the Warsaw City

Janusz Skalski


When we approach to the large cities of Europe, we sense they existence in the landscape on different way. There are seen in the landscape a grid of settlements, industrial plants and old towns. It is seen a lot of kilometres ahead. The skylines of the old towns inform us about historical continuity of the region and it affluence, that is consequently a influence of the large city. Today when we approach to the Warsaw City, we haven’t such a similar impressions. The Warsaw suddenly appear us in the landscape, we sense that region lying all around of the Warsaw, isn’t subject to constructive power of influence a large city, but is beyond it range. It is seen in the skylines of the old medieval towns, those are located on the area. The old medieval towns, located within a radius of 70 km from the Warsaw up to this day are a historical documents of the economic poverty of the Mazovia. This an economic poverty was demeaning to inhabitants of the Warsaw. Now, these old towns are a landscape gateway to the Warsaw. There are a shapeless towns, where old architecture and public space are in poor condition. The building new architecture and rebuilding the medieval castles will be to work in aid of splendour of the Warsaw City. Today, there are a tasks for the authority of Warsaw and other towns, an architects and landscape architects.

Doświadczenia i wzorce w strefie podmiejskiej Warszawy
Experirnces and Patterns in Suburbian Zone of Warsaw

Anna Różańska
Teresa Krogulec


In the article entitled Experience and module in shaping buildings in the Warsaw suburban zone it raised the issue of specific conditions which shaped the conception of city planning foundations in Warsaw. The author stresses that the medieval arrangement of the city did not differ from commonly accepted modules and that such a state lasted and included the 16th century. Only in the next centuries namely in the 17th and 18th century did the situation change. The old Warsaw situated behind medieval walls lost its significance and prestige. Relocation of the capital to Warsaw created a new situation for development (mostly town-planning) of the city, exactly, together with the King’s residence, splendid residences of nobility, magnates, churches and monasteries began to be built. Demand for new building areas increased and as there were no spare plots within the limits of medieval Warsaw, buildings started to be erected in the suburbs. In the 19th century forts engirdling the city with a double ring were a barrier to the natural development of a suburban zone. The growing number of Warsaw inhabitants and also fast developing industry exacted densification of the buildings inside the fortification. The result of it was town-planning chaos and lack of proportion between city and suburban zone After regaining independence attempts were made to repair the town-planning setting of the city and improvement of its appearance. The short period of relative political stabilization of the interwar era brought many interesting town-planning solutions which the author discusses in her article in more detail.


Dziedzictwo i awangarda
Heritage and Avant Garde

Mirosław Przyłęcki


In the article “Heritage and Avant Garde” problems were mentioned connected with so called globalisation, modern form of universalism and multi-pronged monopolization of economy, culture and art and also architecture and town-planning which intensified in the second half of the 20th century and at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. According to the author since the end of the Second world War “our world” has started to rapidly transform as a result of science development (especially technology), common and fast communication, uniformisation forms of goods exchange, world banks cooperation, omnipresent advertising and easy access to media, so called mass-media. An important issue, especially for architects, restaurateurs and town-planners, was also mentioned, namely: identity of a town or a settlement as an evolutionary historical structure in various way colligating past and present and creating a future. Many factors were listed which defined individualism of each town or settlement. The author stresses that there are no easy solutions or simple formulas. In the end a series of elements were presented which stand for discriminating regional characteristics, underlying the tradition of culture and art in a widely apprehended historical and geographical region.

Nowe tendencje w podmiejskiej architekturze okolic Warszawy
New Tendencies in Suburban Architecture in the Warsaw Area

Jeremi T. Królikowski


In the article entitled New Tendencies in Suburban Architecture in the Warsaw Area and Their Influence on Landscape PhD Jeremi T. Królikowski presents an outline of the research problem which he has been running since 1995. In the present publication the author notices that in the past few years in the suburban Warsaw landscape there has appeared such dominant elements as great trading centres and warehouses characterised with homogenous and commercial architecture which does not take into consideration the fact that the surroundings are of minimized esthetical value. In turn in the last few decades the housing substance of suburban Warsaw sets went through a period of monotony caused by norms and classification according to a type and was slowly overcome in the 1980s. Not until the 1990s did the variety of overlying trends, received by some observers as chaos, increase. Simultaneously voices appeared which were postulating restoring the equilibrium and order by introducing unification of patterns. Next the author discuses a dozen or so examples of modern housing building from Warsaw suburban districts leading to the final conclusion that “architectonical" tendencies which can be observed in the last few years in the neighbourhood of Warsaw are developing spontaneously under the influence of political, economical and social factors. Among the tools shaping the consciousness of receivers media play an important part which try in this simple way to direct their tastes. The character of Warsaw’s suburban landscape will also depend on recognition of the complexity of the problem.

Przemiany krajobrazu kulturowego w regionie Zengale (Łotwa)
Transformation Process of Zemgale Region (Latvia) Rural Culture Landscape

Aija Ziemelnice

Wpływ degradacji dziewiętnastowiecznych kurortów morskich na stan tożsamości Pomorza Zachodniego
The Influence of 19th Century Seeside Health Resorts Degradation on West Pomerania Region State
Wojciech Bal


“Longing for the coast” is a recent phenomenon. Europeans did not discover the beach as their destination for travel till the 18th century. Until the 19th century besides ports and havens a lot of coasts was almost empty. Today we observe somekind of monoculture which is covering european shoreline. Spa is the cultural phenomenon. Generally speaking it is a place with natural and therapeutic values (climate, mineral waters etc), with professional, well organized health service and specialistic functions, hydrotherapy, mineral springs, sanatoriums. It is clear that health resort is the place of medical function but owing to human, genius loci affects every cultural aspect. In spite of such many similarities, every health resort keep its own, individual character, its ego which determinates every structure and activity – creating spa landscape. It is significant that spa landscape distinguish itself from different culture landscapes, in Poland as in whole Europe, and it is treated as uncommon and precious cultural value. As the one of original spa landscape values is its psychological aspect – the calm oasis – what is of assistance in the therapies. The spa landscape is created by architecture, fine arts and garden art. The very health resort are the perfect example of gesamtkunstwerk, where fine arts, music, theatre and literature coexists in the open space and where culture and society create its character. When time passed the seaside healthy resorts was transformed into the multifunctional, leisure towns. During the 19th century a lot of buildings and spa resorts was founded. They started to be characteristic elements of panorama views of towns and distinguished in the landscape. Some of them took even the symbol values. After the Second World War because of political transformations and fact of cultural identity weakness and lost of its consciousness, a lot of the spa objects was partly destructed or destroyed. Without care and badly used was rebuilted or devastated. We are in urgent necessity to save the preserved objects as the important elements of cultural heritage and to reconstruct the most valuable and significant elements of landscape.

Młyny wietrzne w panoramie wsi
Windmills in the Landscape of Village

Janusz Gubański 


With the moment of appearing the agricultural and food-processing industrial buildings in the village panorama among the country houses and buildings, new elements have come out to shape its character and cultural landscape. Among small sized country buildings and structures where the dominants were the sacral buildings, manors and groups of land farming buildings, the sub-dominants appeared in the form of grain mills, distilleries, sugar factories and other industrial buildings. Their prevailing position in the village panorama is due to their size and capacity, the material applied in their construction, and sometimes the elevation form. Apart from the technical elements (block, structure, material, and architectural form) a location of the given group of production unit was important. Weather the building is located within the country houses, in a farming buildings group, on the edge of the village, or in an independent location – it does significantly influence the way they are perceived. The clarity of the dominant or merely a characteristic silhouette of the industrial building is very distinct in the case of placing it in an open landscape. This factor is especially significant in the case of windmills. Commonly found in the end of the 19th century, windmills in the outskirts of towns and cities did not have any chance to survive in the succeeding decades. The competition from industrial mills and development of residential settlements cruelly and forcibly eliminated them from the suburban landscape. In the country areas these processes took place at a slightly slower pace, however, within the last 50-60 years also the windmills began to disappear quickly from the village landscape. Seeing the advancing degradation in diversification of the village landscape, it seems justifiable to draw attention to the need of protection of groups of production buildings, or more broadly – the protection of cultural landscape created by them. In this paper, the issue of occurrence of buildings of industrial function has been presented in the example of windmills located in the area of Przemęt, county of Wolsztyn. The mills’ spatial unity with their surrounding has been presented along with their role in creation of historic image of the villages. The selected examples describe different forms of usage and conditions of preservation of these buildings.

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