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4/2012 - Woda - element kompozycyjny / Water - an Element of Composition

AK 4-2012b   Nr 4/2012, vol. 37

Woda - element kompozycyjny
Water - an Element of Composition



Analiza sztuki projektowania założeń wodnych dla chińskich klasycznych prywatnych ogrodów na południe od rzeki Jangcy
Analysis of Water-Designning Art for Chinese Classical Private Gardens South of the Yangtze River
Xiong Hui
Xiong XingYao


Prywatne ogrody na południe od rzeki Jangcy stają się klasyką chińskiej sztuki ogrodowej z powodu inteligentnych technik projektowania założeń wodnych. Techniki te naśladują naturę i w połączeniu z krajobrazem tworzą charakterystykę projektowania założeń wodnych „dużych, rozdzielających i małych, łączących”. Przebiega to poprzez artystyczny proces, który zachowuje rozsądną skalę wielkości, tworząc układy naprzemienne, dynamiczne lub statyczne. W artykule posłużono się przykładami ogrodów, the Humble Administrator’s Garden, the Garden of Pleasant and the master-of-Nets Garden, w których analizowano zasadę zależności układu przestrzeni wodnej od wielkości ogrodu. W konkluzji stwierdzono, że duży, prywatny ogród stanowi formę budynków otoczonych wodą; istnieje tu zależność budynki – woda. Natomiast małe, prywatne ogrody występują w postaci dwóch typów, w których:
1) duża przestrzeń wodna
znajduje się w centrum ogrodu i jest otoczona ścisłą zabudową,
2) przestrzeń
wodna przenika się z budynkami i stanowi ich połączenie.

Styl kompozycji krajobrazowej
Style of Landscape Composition
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski
Emilia Śliwczyńska


Currently the notion of style is more and more often criticized. Nevertheless, it still remains one of the key notions in the theory of art as well as architecture and landscape architecture. We can talk about style in literature, visual arts, music, architecture, gardening, about artistic style of certain regions or epochs. We should also be able to talk about styles of certain landscapes co-created by men, criteria of their identification, needs of protection and principles of shaping. This article explores the essence and attributes of landscape style and its regional diversification. It also demonstrates threats for identity of regions and localities coming from current processes of landscape transformation. The authors of the article notice that style is a reflection of canons of beauty and attractiveness (public demand) pervading in a given epoch. In landscape it is additionally a reflection of local, natural, cultural, economic and technological conditions. Cultural landscapes – despite many common distinguishing features – exhibit considerable regional diversity, which is sometimes so significant, that we can talk about specific styles of particular regions. Shaping of the particular landscape style needs a long-term vision of region development, respect for its natural and cultural heritage, regularity and determination of local people. landscape diversity is as strongly threatened as biological diversity and that is why it is crucial to draw much more attention to the issue of landscape style protection and shaping. The current scale of threats to the quality of landscape causes that local landscape studies should have a more significant rank in research, didactic and project works than they used to have.

Kopalnie w krajobrazie powiatu strzelińskiego – wybrane przykłady zagospodarowania terenów poeksploatacyjnych

Mines in the Landscape of Strzelin County – Selected Examples of Land-Use after Mineral Excavation Areas
Bartosz Jawecki


The paper presents issues dedicated to the extraction of natural resources and land use voids. Briefly sketched the geological structure of the county, the size of resources and raw material extraction in the county Strzelin. The selected examples of land reclamation of mined land and the exploitation of clastic sedimentary rocks, and extrusive igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks deep. Presented are the dominant trends in the county Strzelin rehabilitation of mined land and consequences no reclamation of mined land.


Oranżerie wczoraj i dziś
Orangery Past and Today
Elżbieta Przesmycka
Kamila Boguszewska


Orangery and greenhouses appeared in the sixteenth century. In addition to utilitarian feature they also served an aesthetic and recreational functions. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, new function is sought for them. The article describes the situation of these facilities in Poland. The main aim is to present the state of preservation of existing objects in lublin region (Poland). On the background of the history of architecture, it is discussed some examples of existing orangeris in the south-east of Poland.

Negatywny wpływ rekreacji na wały przeciwpowodziowe Wielkiej Wyspy we Wrocławiu
Negative Impact of Recreation on Flood Embankments of Wielka Wyspa in Wrocław
Kazimierz Chmura
Halina Dzieżyc
Maciej Piotrowski

Anita Zygnerska


Flood embankments, apart from their primary function, which is to protect against flooding, due to their unique nature and landscape value, serve also as a place of recreation. Some forms of recreation practiced on embankments and their surroundings may, however, have negative effects on the environment and, in particular, contribute to the formation of damage that worsen the condition of these structures. In the area of embankments of Wielka Wyspa in Wrocław covered by these studies the following phenomena were observed: accumulation of waste thrown out by resting people, burned out grass in the interembankment zone and on the slopes, loss of vegetation (trampling) within the crest and slopes and in areas of recreation as well as presence of stumps of dead trees planted in the past for recreational purposes on the slopes or crest. One of the most adverse phenomenon is destruction of herbaceous vegetation growing on the embankment slope, which is antierosion protection. It takes the form of losses of vegetation around barriers restricting movement of the motor vehicles on embankments as well as the form of “wild paths”. The suggested solutions that will reduce the negative impact of recreation on the condition of Wielka Wyspa embankments include: continuous monitoring and maintenance of soil and vegetation with particular emphasis on areas exposed to human impact, rebuilding of barriers allowing pedestrians and cyclists to pass each other easily, creating hardened accesses to embankment in trampled areas (for example openwork plates or openwork pavement slabs).

Rozwiązania zagospodarowania terenów nadwodnych w miastach Norwegii
Managing Areas Solutions in Waterfront Cities of Norway
Halyna Petryshyn


The aim of the development of modern Norway is to combine the ideas of environmentalism, awareness of climate change, sustainable development guidelines along with the idea of community activity, and universal health care for citizens. The creation of contemporary architecture the method of Placemaking is implemented, which is seen as transforming program to create changes in the structure of cities in which the government and the community are involved. Feature of the waterfront public space is polyfunctionality and flexibility, introduced at different times through the environment-friendly, small forms and mobile equipment, as well as secured access to waterfront for pedestrians and cyclists.

Krajobraz Holandii od-nowa
Landscape of the Netherlands - (re)Construction
Maciej Stojak
Łukasz Dworniczak


The article shows new Dutch urban realizations based on the VINeX strategy. It includes the descriptions of the new Amsterdam housing estates – Borneo Sporenburg and IJburg, Rotterdam urban intervention – The red Apple building, as well as minor scale investments called urban activators – Theater Podium Grotekerkplein and pedestrian tunnel under the Wilhelminaplein square. Quoted examples, diverse in scale – from urban to strictly architectural, are the models of newest landscape design tendencies. Scope and subject-matter of the land revision enables to assert that both – new urban and cultural landscapes – are designed simultanously in The Netherlands. looking at transformed and artificial landscape of Holland, one can understand the need of its restoration or from the start design. New largescale urban investments in The Netherlands are outstanding examples of hi-density housing structures and are worth paying attention to.


Ogrody dla osób z dysfunkcją wzroku w świetle ich oczekiwań
Gardens for People with Visual Disfunction in Comparison with their Expectations
Anita Woźny
Anna Lauda


The aim of the present study was to show and estimate three gardens adapted to visit by people with disabilities, especially by the blind and poor sight people. In this paper Arboretum and Institute of Physiography in Bolestraszyce, botanical Garden – Center for biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Powsin (Warsaw, Poland) and didactic path in Myślęcinek (Bydgoszcz, Poland) were describe. After the recognition of the present gardens and evaluate for example tablets, surface or plants, to state, that The Sensory Garden Bolestraszyce has the best conditions for people with disabilities. Didactic path in Myślęcinek needs some changes, to be more friendly for this group of people.

Analiza zapisów dotyczących kształtowania ładu przestrzennego w miejscowych planach zagospodarowania przestrzennego gminy Siechnice
Analysis of the Records of the Creation of Spatial Order in the Local Spatial Management Plans of Community Siechnice
Beata Warczewska


The article brought closer to the concept of the spatial order, drew attention to the relationship between the space harmony and the ordering of relationships arising from the functional, socio-economic, environmental, cultural and compositional – aesthetic conditions and requirements. There were described the selected research and evaluation methods of the spatial order. The many-sidedness of the spatial order hinders its measurableness. The presented methods capture the issue in a fragmentary way. Tool for shaping of the spatial order at the local level is the local land management plan. The article presents an analysis of the records of the spatial order in the selected local land management plans of community Siechnice. In conclusions there was drew attention to the underutilization of regulatory possibilities of the local plans. The used records enable flexibility in shaping of the building development, they do not include the landscape values and the need to protect them, the determinations contained therein are too vague and restrictive. With these records the creation of the spatial order seems to be impossible.


Stare i nowe symbole Wrocławia
Old and New Symbols of Wrocław
Łukasz Damurski


This paper presents an overview of the changes in the image of Wrocław (Poland) in the postwar period. The most important and permanent symbols of the city have been listed: rynek (the market Place), ratusz (the City Hall), Ostrów Tumski with Cathedral, green areas and parks, Hala Stulecia. The survey from 2007 shows a big importance of immaterial values in perception of Wrocław, that is the aura of the city, pleasant people and unique history.The paper also tries to predict possible changes in the image of Wrocław in the future.

Podzwonne dla zagrody
Death Knells for Homestead
Małgorzata Drożdż-Szczybura


From the beginning of permanent settlement, a homestead, a place of work and living of a peasant family, was the first and basic element shaping the settlement landscape. It generated clear spatial solutions for an entire village. Since the end of the 20th century, a peasant homestead has been commonly losing its traditional function. living and production functions have been separated from each other and a homestead has no longer been a spatial solution the village development used to be marked by. It is characteristic of the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries that new forms of village and rural areas settlement developed. Traditional production homesteads belong mainly to the group of subsistence farms and partially to the group of semi-subsistence farms. No prospects for independent and unsubsidized growth of family subsistence farms and a part of semi-subsistence farms will result in continued operation and growth of large-scale farms in the years to come. Only very large area farms, which are mainly companies and cooperatives as well as those family farms which have more than 100 ha of plough land will be able to limit the cost of production and make a profit. In case such a scenario occurs, this will give rise to specialized, often monoculture, large farm agriculture, where a household is separated from a farmstead, the latter being regarded as a company. Change of the function, transformation of once typically agricultural villages into multifunctional centres, development of non-agricultural activities, and implementation of afforestation programmes will be finally accompanied by the disappearance of the existing homestead development from the majority of the rural areas and also the lack of new homestead development there. The landscape of rural areas used for agricultural purposes will be dominated by farmsteads with large area and single-species crop, greenhouses and livestock facilities making it possible for making maximum profit with the minimum expenditure. Besides, other objects of no permanent connection with the land will also prevail, including mobile buildings, storage sheds, and all-purpose rooms, and maybe in the not too distant future, there will also be vertical farms. Vertical objects, which for the time being partially remain in the sphere of futuristic designs, may also be located within the cities.

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