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3/2012 - Metody badawcze i dydaktyczne w architekturze krajobrazu / Research and Teaching Methods in Landscape Architecture

AK 3-2012 b1   Nr 3/2012, vol. 36

Metody badawcze i dydaktyczne w architekturze krajobrazu
Research and Teaching Methods in Landscape Architecture


Analizy widokowe z użyciem narzędzi cyfrowych
Scenic Analyses with Application of Digital Tools
Agnieszka Ozimek
Paweł Ozimek
Piotr Łabędź


The aim of this paper is to present a method of landscape analysis with the application of computer techniques. In particular, it is useful in the case of decision making, concerning acceptability of the certain transformations of space, especially, when it has high visual qualities. The method is executed in several steps and the initial one consists in the creation of a digital terrain model, with regard to its cover. It serves for calculations of the visual impact extent. In the next stage, this area is investigated, taking into consideration its tourist and recreational activation. Panoramic photographs took in the fixed places are pre-processed, in order to distinguish cultural and natural substance. In the last phase, qualitative and quantitative analyses of views are conducted, indicators for which are, as follows: the average image brightness and its fractal dimension. Achieved numerical values can be helpful in the more objective expert decision making.

Waloryzacja widoków jako element studium krajobrazowego na przykładzie gminy Paczków
Valorisation of Views as an Element of the Landscape Study on the Example of Community Paczków
Jerzy Potyrała
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak    
Monika Ziemiańska

Paweł Filipiak


To properly compose a space at the community level its area should be analyzed taking into account the cultural and natural values and landscape values specified in sight from roads and valorisation of views. Such studies are aimed at the gradation of study area for spatial effects in the case of heavily accented investments there in the landscape. This article describes a method proposal of analysis for the municipality area taking into account the landscape values, this method was a one of the elements of study of the cultural landscape of the community Paczków done by a team of authors. In the first part of the paper the authors present the systematics of the well-known landscape valorisation methods, noting, inter alia, methods of the natural valorisation, valorisation methods of the cultural elements, planning and managerial valorisation methods. During the work on the study there was developed an authorial method of valorisation of panoramas and views presented in the further part of the study. After the preliminary analysis of the terrain and routes of the community Paczków the exhibi-tion space was selected within an average of 500 m from the locality, situated on the road leading to it. Of the selected points there were made photos of the village panoramas and open landscape with a viewing angle of about 90–1200. On their basis there were made drawings by processing the image of photo on linear composition taking into account the facture differences of individual planes. The number of plans and landform were analyzed (wing view, the emergence of a distant placed surfaces, hilliness of the area plane), then the degree of diversification of land cover (crop diversity, variety of colors, variety of surface structures). We analyzed the complexity of the habitat elements (the relationships between the saturation of buildings and surrounding greenery it, the types of systems of the mid-field green), and the degree of space orientation (emphasis of the road direction by vertical elements – rows and avenues of trees, its free and smooth direction, emphasizing the landscape elements receding in perspective). For each of these issues there were made 4 models of panoramic view with a four-level scale of complexity, with the assumption that with it grows the view attractiveness. In total, each panoramic image of the community area could get points in a scale from 4 to 16. It was assumed to consider as a medium attractive view in the range of 7 to 10 points, 11 points and above as a very attractive view and worthy of protection. The views of scoring 6 and below have no landscape value. The diverse composition of the view emphasized by the ordering element is, according to authors, of the greatest value. As it turns out, it has a strong relationship with the commonly understood cultural values. These are the view approaches to the traditionally shaped forms, and so, inter alia, the localities with the building development surrounded by high green, enriched with the dominant of church tower, the diversity of crop fields, alleys and roadside rows, free but dependent on landform the road line make the landscape so pleasant to receive. The conclusion here is that the developed method, based on the valorisation of purely spatial elements gives a good tool for assessing the value of the landscape, and in particular the degree of its consistency with the cultural values.

Możliwości zastosowania oceny pojemności krajobrazu w planowaniu przestrzennym na obszarach podmiejskich
Possible Applications of Landscape Capacity Assessment in Spatial Planning in Suburban Areas
Piotr Krajewski


Studies on the landscape in Poland date back to the 20s of twentieth century. The precursor has been prof. Adam Wodziczko, the initiator of Polish national parks – Wolinski and Wielkopolski. He has promoted the field of science called “farming landscape”. Now it is identified with the shaping of the environment/landscape architecture. In a situation where the landscape is created by investors and the private interests of individuals for whom the choice of the investment place is crucial, the formation of a new building is far from full knowledge of the direct and indirect effects of location decisions. In this context, it is necessary to develop methods for assessing landscape capacity – the ability of landscape to absorb proposed development associated with human activities without losing the current value of the landscape. This method could be used in spatial planning. Studies on the landscape capacity have been taken for the first time in the 70s of the last century in the United States. As a result, they are an obligatory part of the analysis now, performed before the location of investment. For several years, the landscape capacity assessment is also part of the landscape analysis performed at the local level in Britain. Determination metrics of possible landscape transformations can be an excellent tool in monitoring and managing the landscape changes resulting from implementation of the assumptions contained in planning documents. The value of practical use of metrics increase especially in the protected areas and areas particularly vulnerable to the expansion of housing. The example of such areas, where keeping of the principles of sustainable development in spatial planning is very important, are suburban areas and the municipalities located in landscape parks and other protected areas.

Metoda oceny przydatności rekreacyjnej złożonych struktur krajobrazu kulturowego w środowisku silnie zurbanizowanym
Method for Assessing Recreational Usability of Complex Cultural Landscape Structures in Highly Urbanized Environments
Katarzyna Pałubska


Among the tested methods of valorisation for recreation the analysis in terms of usefulness for recreational investment or attractiveness of recreation play a leading role (they relate to areas of highest natural values). There are many partial methods for assessing the usefulness of areas for recreation (or tourism) dependent on spatial scale, degree of assessment generalization and professional orientation of the author. For urban areas or regions the role of the diversity of the geographical environment and communication accessibility of the area (the planning and spatial aspect,) stands out in the foreground. In studies on a local scale assessments of the resilience and health properties of the natural environment (the physiographic or phytosociological aspect) or following the needs of the people (the social aspect) are becoming more important. The new issue is a orientation of the conservational valorisation methods on determining of the recreation suitability of the cultural landscape of cities. The proper assessment of the recreation usefulness of historical areas needs by author to develop an indirect method, in which the analysis of the individual components of the geographical environment would impose usage patterns, taking into account the investment and spatial availability of areas, and natural and cultural values as elements of co-creating a harmonious landscape. Also the economic factors affecting the value of the land, and so far included occasionally have been subjected to a more detailed evaluation. The developed method of assessing the recreation usefulness of complex structures of the cultural landscape was based on the analysis of fortification works, preserved in the spatial structure of Warsaw. The method is based on the selected subgroups of criteria:

  • primary- determining the recreation functions (the possibility of the introduction of recreational functions);
  • secondary – determining the type of recreation.

The primary criteria determine the current investment availability of areas and depend mainly on the way of development and use, ownership structure and purpose in the planning records. The secondary criteria determine the values of the area in terms of program and type of recreational behaviors.


Antropopresja ekoenergetyczna w krajobrazie na przykładzie Parku Wiatrowego "Lipniki"
Eco Energy Anthropopression in the Landscape for Example the Wind Park "Lipniki"
Tomasz Malczyk


The needs changeability of the society conditioned its development, and also the growth of the consciousness of new challenges about the regional and global character, trigger of the pressure on environment and scenery. The one of the significant forms of anthropopression is the influence in the ecoenergy aspect. The introduction of elements realizing this kind of the pressure, in a measurable way influences on the environment and shapes the landscape. This challenge sets the new trajectory of the procedure to make difficult decisions in the area of landscape. The needs changeability of the society conditioned its development, and also the growth of the consciousness of new challenges about the regional and global character, trigger of the pressure on environment and scenery. The one of the significant forms of anthropopression is the influence in the ecoenergy aspect. The introduction of elements realizing this kind of the pressure, in a measurable way influences on the environment and shapes the landscape. This challenge sets the new trajectory of the procedure to make difficult decisions in the area of landscape.

Ocena krajobrazowa i florystyczna wybranych gospodarstw ekologicznych i konwencjonalnych z regionu Pojezierza Brodnickiego i Doliny Dolnej Wisły
Landscape and Floristic Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Farms from the Region of the Brodnica Lake District and the Valley of the Low Vistula River
Konrad Majtka
Grzegorz Bukowski
Ewa Koreleska


At the scientific work they made an appraisal of chosen agricultural farms running the production with environmental and conventional methods. The area of the research included the Brodnica lake district and the Valley of the Lower Vistula, two very valuable areas under the angle of the conservation of nature and biodiversity. They conducted research in 2008–2010 years in ecological and conventional area belongings in the support about applied and accepted German method of estimation of the landscape Söhngena called, adopted to Polish conditions. Such a storage payment was analysed as: forming the area, flora, surface waters, according to parameters exploited in this method of estimation of the landscape. A floristic list and indicator of resemblances, are supplementing the evaluation of Sörensena parameter counted for analysed farms. A comparison and an evaluation of organic and conventional farms are a purpose of the work, finding resemblances and landscape and floristic, conditioned differences with the scope of research and the specificity and the value of the landscape with nature plane.

Ochrona krajobrazu w aspektach rozwoju źródeł energii odnawialnej i polityki przestrzennej gminy, na przykładzie gminy Krotoszyce
Scenery Protection in the Aspect of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources and Spatial Planning Policy in an Administrative Commune as Exemplified by the Administrative Commune of Krotoszyce
Anna Bazan-Krzywoszańska


On the 11th of July 2003 the bill on spatial planning and development of 27th of March 2003 became law (the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, 2003; No. 80, item 717 – the uniform text with later changes), which together with the law of the 7th of July 1994 – the Building Code (the Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, 2010; No. 243, item 1623 – uniform text) and technical regulations provides legal foundations in Poland for the investment process. The content of the binding legal regulations, including the relations between them and the enforcement of the law introduced by them, means that in most cases, because of lack of precision as far as the relation of one regulation to another is concerned, these regulations are impracticable. In terms of the spatial policies of administrative communes, including the possibility of obtaining sources of renewable energy appearing on the basis of the study of conditions and directions of spatial development, the problem of scenery protection is a component with quite a strong influence. Lack of legal obligation, within statutory areas of interest, for institutions responsible for scenery protection to enforce regulations providing ideas for directions of development should be regarded as a factor hindering the investment process. This factor considerably prolongs realisation time at the stage of preparing planning documents, mainly because of the necessity to provide additional analyses.


Nowy krajobraz starych dzielnic mieszkaniowych Lublina
The New Landscape of Old Residential Districts of Lublin
Elżbieta Przesmycka
Małgorzata Sosnowska


Article raises issues of changes in the landscape of residential areas Lublin created between the late 40s to early 60s: Housing estates Racławicka Dzielnica Mieszkaniowa (RDM), housing estates of Zakłady Osiedli Robotniczych (ZOR): Zachód, Bronowice, Tatary and the first settlements of Lublin Housing Association (LSM): Mickiewicz housing estate. In the area of described settlements still remained examples of architecture and architectural details from the period of 50s, typical for the period of socialirealism. Currently, in these settlements appear contemporary forms of land development. Unfortunately, as a result of renovation of residential buildings, the architectural details are eliminated of interior walls (including window frames, wall mosaics, etc.), in exchange, a new color of the facade is introduced. As a result of changes in ownership, some blocks are becoming residential communities. Appear their own, individual development of green areas. They are adjacent to other forms of development pursued by the management of cooperatives. In parallel, there are local community activities that complement the overall spatial chaos.


Rodzime materiały budowlane jako wyznacznik harmonijnego krajobrazu regionu Troad w Turcji
The Indigenous Building Materials as an Indicator of the Harmonious Landscape of the Region Troad in Turkey
Anna Podolska


Over the centuries, the residential development, regardless of cubature or location stood out in the landscape through form, color or composition layout. Works of construction or architecture unique for the selected area, in which they became were its determinant, identifier. Becoming a part of the cultural landscape the building development affects the visual perception and provides the identity of the place. The cited in the article the Troad region also has a clear differentiator, which is a local rock material. With it, not only the space transformed by man but also the natural landscape are characterized by the local coloring, which is identified with a specific location.


Kształtowanie wrażliwości studentów architektury krajobrazu na problemy osób niepełnosprawnych
Shaping an Attitude in Landscape Architecture Students Towards Disabled Users
Hanna Marszałek
Kamila Adamczyk


The standards of accessibility for buildings and their surrounding are regulated by legislative norms. However the efficient and really useful solutions are noticeable only by personal and physical experience. To make the issue closer to the future designers, it was created a subject, possible to select by students, titled “Users with disabilities in public spaces”. It is divided into lecture and practical classes. The Lectures contain the following issues: types of disabilities, legal norms, ergonomics parameters, examples of universal solutions (in accordance with Design for All) as well as tourism and recreation of people with disabilities. The practical classes give to the students chance to get physical experience of architectural, terrain, communications and social barriers well known by disabled users. To accomplished this aim, we use following equipments: wheelchairs, crutches, walking frames, white canes and weights for imitation of an old age. Thanks to the equipments it is possible to feel as a persons with different types of disabilities. During the classes students consecutive assess accessibility of buildings in Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences complex and selected parts of urban spaces. The final task is to write a report of accessibility contains as well propositions of solutions in accordance with Design for All. The subject “Users with disabilities in public spaces” is popular with students. It is chosen by them every year and the participates are very committed to their tasks during classes. The mail aim of the subject, which is shaping sensitivity in future designers of public space, will be the practical expressed in their career.


Waloryzacja krajobrazowa szlaków turystycznych Masywu Śnieżnika
The Landscape Valorization of Śnieżnik Hiking Trails
Krystyna Bryś 
Justyna Woszczyk


In areas of high natural beauty and landscape values the main problem is to maintain a balance between the protection and sharing. Over-activation of tourism and holiday traffic may lead to the irreversible degradation of the landscape or the destruction of its most important components that determine the attractiveness of the place. In this regard, reasonable, balanced policy and practice of spatial development of such areas should be guided, as a long-term goal, the need to preserve the attractiveness of the place, rather than temporary economic interests. This requires a prior inventory of such places, a proper assessment of their values and recognize the existing situation on the ground, including for possible corrective action to restore the attractiveness of the place. An important role in these activities are suitable layout and demarcation of hiking trails and their landscape valorization. This issue have been analysed on an example of the valuation of landscape attractiveness along a chosen hiking tourist route (Bolesławów – Kletno – Hala pod Śnieżnikiem – Śnieżnik) in the Massif of Śnieżnik in the East Sudety Mts The valuation of landscape was based on giving points to individual elements of landscape on a scale 1–5. At each point along the route, 10 elements of landscape was subject to an assessment. They are: terrain, flora, fauna, water, process and cultural transformation, the elements of the cultural environment, composition, color, originality and visual experience (individual assessment). Detailed rules for the assessment contained in the master table. Scoring for each stage of the route has been averaged. As a result, it was established an impressions curve on a graph, showing the variability along the landscape. Based on the obtained scale values of the landscape, along a route was determined areas with a very high, high, medium, low and very low values of landscape.

Odnowa wizerunku terenów parkingowych
The Reneval of Car Park's Image
Jacek Burdziński


Along with an intensive development of individual motorization in Poland in last twenty years, appeared the requirements of new widest ways, circular railroads and highways and accompanying them it more sizeable but through greatest car parks. Many of them was built in this period on new residential housing estates and at stations, administrative, business, sports objects or other services. Unfortunately, majority field of used surface car parks does not effect on esthetics of cultural landscape positively, but on the contrary, through lack of imagination of planner and technical bad condition, it effects on its picture negatively. Areas of car parks function as dull element of grey daily landscape in consciousness of inhabitants. They are treated as all its own necessary evil, forced by structure of object they are the back of communication for.Especially fields of oldest car parks presently spoil the landscape. Theirs picture requires indispensable correction and creative intervention of architect of landscape. Hereby article is dedicated to this question and especially to the possible and checked manners of improvement in the general picture of areas of back of vehicular traffic in existing context of cultural landscape. The existing condition, actual needs, according to obligatory capacity indicators and also chances on correcting the state of esthetics of parking objects are discussed in it. They are advisable a possibilities of harmonious composing parking surfaces to the public areas as well as analysis of methods improving the visual appearance of car parks by combination them with vegetable robe and application of ecological surfaces for example. Parking areas instead to disfigure the landscape can contribute to a positive image of it.

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