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2/2012 - Wiejska przestrzeń - zagrożone dziedzictwo / The Rural Space - Endangered Heritage

AK 2-2012   Nr 2/2012, vol. 35

Wiejska przestrzeń - zagrożone dziedzictwo
The Rural Space - Endangered Heritage



Odnowa wsi z wykorzystaniem środków europejskich - niewykorzystana szansa na rewitalizację
The Village Renewal with the Use of the European Funds - Untapped Opportunity for Revitalization
Ryszard Wilczyński


This article summarizes the scope and nature of the rural renewal projects supported by the EU funds. The top-down method of implementation of these projects, far from the essence of village renewal as a means of development of the rural areas, utilizing the revitalization paradigm, dominated the perception of this concept in Poland. However, the scale of the projects created an opportunity (utilized in a small way) to boost revitalization of the rural space, which could be a model character of the qualitatively good projects. In consideration of the revitalization, the aim of which is to give the town (the rural area) development impulses, with the model example of Rhineland-Palatinate, the achievable regional results were illustrated, and the situation in this field in the country was critically assessed. Treating the project as a revitalizing factor, depending on the stage of development processes in the environment of its implementation, there was proposed the concept of the revitalization potential of project, consisting of revaluation properties and useful values. The causes and consequences of the choice of projects for implementation were analyzed without quality criterion. Then the method of assessing the quality of the project was proposed, with the intention of applying it in the support programs of the rural areas in the years 2014 to 2020. In the assessment formula expressed in writing: the quality of the project = (valorization properties + utility properties) x level of innovation, there was highlighted the importance of innovation as an integrating element of the impact of the project and impact of the funding program. Using this method, was carried out partial, because concerning the revaluation properties, the assessment of collection of SPO and PROW projects implemented in the province Silesia. The results showed that the done project contributed infinitesimally to the revitalization of the village, which demonstrates the need to take into account the criterion of quality in the support mechanisms

Fragmentacja przestrzeni i krajobraz odłamków - nieuniknione przeznaczenie czy epizod w historii wiejskiego krajobrazu?
Fragmentation of Space and Fragmented Landscape - the Fate or Just an Episode in the Rural Landscape History
Aleksander Böhm


The increasing of chaos of space between "city" and "nature" is not an episode, which we can to bide one`s time, and after than everything will return automatically to the former harmony. Instead of inventory of fleeting order we need the reinvention. A new concept for the economically balanced beauty, it is a task for the professional elites. That kind of invention can not be created by the public. It needs the effort of personality - not community. In consequence, one more work is needed - to transform the opinion of majority, according to the opinion represented by minority. In our democracy it is possible only by showing of the pecuniary profits coming from such an enterprise.

Zasób dziedzictwa kulturowego wsi opolskiej i sposoby jego ochrony
The Cultural Heritage Resource of the Opole Village and Methods for Its Protection
 Iwona Solisz


The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the protection of the historic villages taking into account the characteristics of the resources and institutional activities undertaken for the preservation of that heritage in the Opole region. The paper characterizes the cultural heritage resources of the Opole village in the of historical, architectural and legal context. The paper discusses in detail the work of team for preservation of the cultural heritage of villages and protection of the rural landscape, working with the Governor of Opole since 2008. In the framework of goals set by the team there was adopted and largely completed the following activities program: to recognize of achievements of institutions dealing with these problematic aspects, to explore the historical resource of the Opole village in the field, documentation and valorization of the resource, specifying the most valuable resources (more than 100 villages covered by the demand of protection), proposals for protection activities - recommendations for the individual institutions, activation of the local community, educational activities. The paper presents the used research methods and examples of the taken actions under the program.

Wyróżniki dziedzictwa kulturowego obszarów wiejskich
The Distinguishing Features of the Cultural Heritage of Rural Areas
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak


The today's the village is no longer the place of residence of people only engaged in agricultural production, whereby the former building development designed to serve different functions in this connection is no longer needed. Farm buildings located in the old rural farms: barns, livestock buildings and other outbuildings, if they have not found a new function they are now falling into ruin and disappear from the landscape of the village. One of possibility to appropriate shape the rural area is to determine the parameters of the rural landscape, which is its essential features, and then including them in all investment activities in the rural areas, or on their basis creating a future image of the village. It is very important for this reason, so that rural areas do not lost their individual character. The distinguishing features of the rural areas may be inspiration to create new things with a high standard, however, in line with what is exiting.


Zmiany w wiejskim krajobrazie a uwarunkowania prawno-ekonomiczne
Changes in the Rural Landscape and the Legal-Economic Conditions Landscape Areas
Marek Wiland


Today, in cities and postindustrial agglomerations the presence of degraded areas, their scale, lack of ideas for re-use, breadth of hazards, lack of planning tools and methods and financial resources, makes the restoration of balance between nature and culture, while meeting the needs of man, is complicated. The restoration of the landscape, equivalent to the achievement of balance between the natural and built environment becomes, in many cases, a luxury that not every city or region can afford. In many cases, however, what constitutes a threat can become an opportunity to create a new image of the postindustrial areas. Sometimes the bold vision and a creative approach are enough to see in the degraded landscape the beauty and turn it into a new quality.The new landscape is creating, which can be harmonious despite the scale of transformations. The challenge for the conversion of postindustrial landscapes is a combination of technological solutions with the social and environmental factor, while the process of creative finding new values. In this context, identification of natural values of the postindustrial areas, an indication of particularly valuable places worthy of protection, preservation or processing, and new management, took on special significance. An opportunity that can bring the postindustrial areas economic, social and environmental benefits becomes the use of the anthropogenic elements of the natural environment such as: dumps, pits or artificial water reservoirs. Creating through them a new landscape the features of the individual degraded elements are no longer only peculiarities, they become distinctive values of an area. In combination with the possibility of forming a new image and the necessary technical innovation, these values are an attraction, whose popularity and skillful use can restore the spatial order and affect the perception way of contemporary cities and postindustrial agglomerations.

Zapis dziedzictwa kulturowego wsi w kontekście zmian tożsamości miejsca w krajobrazie
Registration of Cultural Heritage of Village on the Background of Transformation of Identity of Place in the Lanscape
Zbigniew Myczkowski


In Poland, a new social and economic reality has been established, changes in the political system introduced, accompanied by a real yearning and urge for democracy. The latter is often seen as an unlimited freedom of action directed by a rapacious desire for possessions and aspirations to catch up on those lost decades. Those factors constitute a serious threat to landscape and its components: the cultural heritage and natural environment; they also hit the individual, community, and national identity. The main idea of this dissertation (qualifying for the degree of the assistant professor) was to prove that the landscape surrounding us is a projection of identity and a synthesis of everything that makes an environment which:
  • firstly - is perceived as an expression of the material space in respect of both: - its natural conditions (geological, geo-morphological, hydrological, climatic and naturalecological conditions), - and its cultural components (civilisation and social-economic that involve human works included here in the form of archeological and pre-historical, ethnographic, architectural issues, or in the form of themes referring to art works and city planning, also rural issues, policies of the Green Party, and finally, the architecture of landscape), and
  • secondly - is sensed as an expression of the material and spiritual (immaterial) space, determined and conditioned by anthropogenic actions (in respect of historical, philosophical, mythical issues, perceptive and semiotic problems).

While developing this thesis three theoretical approaches considered by the author of this dissertation. The most essential have been discussed with reference to the practice within the research field of the landscape architecture. The are identity and place; identity and time (in the light of continuous changes and the "passing away of persons belonging to this world"); and, identity and landscape (with a special "inclination" towards the landscape of culture within those regions). There have been presented the elaboration from cracow's school of landscape architecture among others: the chart of countryscape of jurassic villages and the chart of cultural heritage of locality as the instruments for activity in conservation of monuments, nature and spatial planning.


Partycypacja społeczna w ochronie dziedzictwa kulturowego
Public Participation in Cultural Heritage Preservation
Krystyna Pawłowska


The style and level of the public debate concerning generally spatial management, including heritage preservation in Poland, is least to say unsatisfactory as the phrase 'public quarrel' would be closer to the mark. The countless conflicts not only render well-balanced project management difficult, if not altogether impossible but also contribute to numerous losses. Contradictions in this area cannot be avoided but there exist conflict prevention methods that can be mastered. It is great challenge, because progress in this area requires changes on customs and mentality of both public authority and society. Public participation in architecture is just a method of conflict prevention. The article presents a concept of participation suitable for current socio-cultural situation in Poland.

Dialog z tradycją - interpretacja lokalnej tradycji budowlanej na Warmii i Mazurach
Dialogue with Tradition - the Interpretation of the Local Architecture Tradition in the Warmia and Mazuria Region
Iwona Liżewska


Gradually shaping for ages the rural landscape, according to the tradition and experience, is subject to the violent transformation. Confronted with the investment pressure, global process and progress in cultural landscape degradation observing in the 90s of the 20th century, it started to come back, very lively at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the ideas of regionalism. Since the mid-90s the landscape shaping and its preserving has been in the Warmia and Mazuria region actively and creatively undertaken by the olsztyńskie association the Cultural Community "Borussia". From that circle came out the impulse to invite tenders for the design of the modern house which had been inspired by the local tradition. In 2010 the competition "Twój dom - dialog z tradycją" ["Your house - the dialogue with tradition"] was organized by the Warmian and Mazurian Marshal Office, National Center for Historical Monuments Studies and Documentation (presently National Heritage Board of Poland) and Polish Architecture Association - Local Division in Olsztyn. The main goal of that competition was to find out and to popular some new models of the family housing for the rural lands which could have been a kind of the traditional building continuation. a point of departure for the creative interpretation of the most characteristic and valuable landscape and Warmian and Mazurian architecture motives was the monograph concerning the tradition of the regional housing and farm building. 184 designs from all over Poland entered into this project. Many of the participants made an attempt in creative and modern interpretation of the historical motives both in the form and the details and being also inspired by the farm buildings. Prized (4) and awarded (24) projects were prepared to be sold and have also been presented in the catalogue which was distributed in the region. The competition organizers believ, that the designs will wind the purchasers and the constructed houses will soon appear in the Warmian and Mazurian region raising its landscape value.

Ochrona i kształtowanie krajobrazu wsi w pracach Instytutu Architektury Krajobrazu Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu
Landscape Protection and Shaping of the Rural Landscape in the Work of the Institute of Landscape Architecture, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wrocław
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak
Zbigniew Kuriata
Andrzej Drabiński


The concept of order, including the spatial order, should be the basis for any actions concerning the development of the space surrounding us that this particular symmetry between nature and the human activity could be preserved and could mark the harmonious compatibility and the correct interdependence of components. While the cultural heritage as an important element of national heritage, is fairly well protected (durability of the legal solutions, the stabilized structures of public administration, social awareness) is the landscape, especially the rural landscape, it is not properly protected and treated with care, and one of the reasons for this is a crisis situation in terms of spatial planning. Institute of Landscape Architecture at the University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IAK) participates in activities in support of rural leaders since 2001, when it was initiated cooperation with the Office of the Marshal of the Opole Province. Since 2004, there were works began in the Lower Silesia region in cooperation first with municipalities and the local action groups, and afterwards in cooperation with the Marshal Office of Lower Silesia. The employees of IAK has begun since that time training for the rural leaders, moderators, and local authorities, realizing topics related to the cultural heritage and landscape conservation of the village. They were conducted in both provinces, as well as in Silesia, Lublin and Great Poland voivodeship.


Między teorią a praktyką - działalność biura dokumentacji zabytków pomorza zachodniego
Between Theory and Practice. Activity of Office of Monuments Documentation in the Protection of the Rural Cultural Landscape in the Western Pomerania
Maria Witek
Cezary Nowakowski


Office for the Documentation of Historical Monuments in Szczecin is the voivodeship self-government cultural institution dedicated to the wider issues of cultural area of the Western Pomerania, in particular the documentation of architectural monuments, and also issues related to their care and custody. Within this range the BDZ works closely with the Western Pomeranian Voivodeship Conservator of Monuments and Area Branch of the National Heritage Institute. The BDZ has developed a Voivodeship Programme for the Protection of Monuments for the years 2008-2012 and monitors its implementation; it also created a study of cultural resource for the spatial development plan for the province. In the amendment were isolated 30 cultural-landscape areas and 43 potential landscape parks in which the protection of monuments should be integrated with the preservation of the natural environment values. The BDZ also monitors the work by the municipal records for monuments and municipal programs of monuments protection. The activities of the Office are directed also to the widely understood social education, the strengthening and deepening of the regional identity and respect for the tangible and intangible expressions of culture of Pomerania. These objectives are realized during the European Heritage Days, but also during the organized thematic workshops, after school activities for youth, occasional exhibitions and lectures. The cultural heritage of Pomerania needs, regardless of strict legal actions, also promotion; this purpose serve publications developed and published by the Office for the Documentation of Historical Monuments.

Dziedzictwo wsi wielkopolskiej - stan zachowania, zagrożenia oraz działania zmierzające do jego ochrony
Heritage of the Greater Poland Village - Conservation Status, Threats, and Actions to Protect It
Teresa Palacz


The material heritage of the Great Poland village should be considered inseparable with the spiritual values. That what is now characteristic for Greater Poland is the result of the centuries-old processes. This is apparent both in the settlement, construction, customs, folklore and cooking. The settlement landscape of Greater Poland was shaped by the medieval settlement, the rise of the feudal manor, various colonization actions from the XVII to the XIX century, including the Olęder settlement, the activity of the Prussian Commission for Settlement. In the XIX century processes of enfranchisement in the form of pooling, separation, and parceling and the industrial development have led to reconstruction of the village. The land reform in the interwar period, from 1925 and the PKWN decree on agricultural reform of 1944 have completed the changes. The clear imprint in all areas of life left the boundary of partition, which divided for over 100 years the homogeneous body which was Greater Poland. Differences between the parts of Greater Poland belonging to the Prussian and Russian partition despite the passage of more than 90 years, are still visible. The rural heritage of Greater Poland is preserved in the spatial configurations, with gables of houses set to the rural road, especially in the southwestern Greater Poland. It's also still the readable Olęder settlement, in the Nadnoteckie areas (marsh lanes - Polish rzędówki bagienne), and in the vicinity of Nowy Tomyśl, Lwówek and Trzciel (the dispersed settlement) and in the Pyzdrska Forest (river floodplains on the Warta and Prosna). Great Poland can boast a very large amount of preserved palaces, mansions, residences, parks and farms. Many of them represent a high artistic, architectural and spatial composition level. The dense settlement network which was already during the Middle Ages caused that there are in Greater Poland a lot of churches, both brick and timber and half-timbered churches, often very valuable. The agricultural landscape is characterized by windmills, mills, sugar mills, distilleries. Monuments of the railways are also noteworthy. Many objects are individually protected by registration in the register of monuments. Only 9 ruralistic formations in the region are listed in the register of monuments. Only 1 cultural park around of Żerków and Śmiełów was established until now. It is necessary to mention the numerous risks, the unfavorable changes which are taking place in a village in the last 20 years. There are also many positive aspects of 145 numerous operations. Just even to mention the Local Action Groups, Village Renewal movement, the Culinary Heritage network, various folk festivals associated with traditional food, etc. This article outlined only in a summary form the problems of an extremely rich and diverse heritage of the village of Great Poland.

"Żywy skansen Słowino" - ochrona pomorskiego krajobrazu kulturowego

"The Living Open-Air Museum Słowino" - Protection of the Pomeranian Cultural Landscape
Waldemar Witek


Słowino - a village in the district Sławno - is a characteristic example of the traditional cultural landscape in Western Pomerania. The village preserved the oval shape spatial form together with the church (dominant) in the countryside, farm building structure and numerous examples of half-timbered building development, which are a specific kind of "saving" of history of the succeeding generations. Within the village we can see the harmony of centuries of tradition, highlighted by the interpenetration of the cultural and natural elements. Elements of the material heritage of the village are documented in the form of conservational and scientific-research studies and were presented at conferences, exhibitions and competitions. The educational activities contributed to promotion of Słowino in the coastal region, and to wake up the local patriotism and identification with the historical legacy - as evidenced by the adaptation of the historic homesteads in the year-round habitats and agri-tourism farms. On the basis of the existing human capital the project "The living open-air museum Słowino" was developed, which idea was to protect the cultural heritage, education and to popularize values of the halftimbered building development of the village, and ultimately to revitalize the historic buildings and harmonious development of the village. In the years 2006-2008, Office of the Documentation of Historical Monuments in Szczecin, in cooperation with the local community, local authorities and with support from MKiDN (Ministry of Culture and National Heritage) organized a conservational-construction workshop entitled "The old structures - new dreams." The purpose of these workshops was: the values demonstration of the traditional (half-timbered) rural construction, education of children and youth, the direct participation of the villagers, to obtain practical skills in the renovation of historic buildings and the use of the traditional designs as inspiration for new projects. The open and outdoor form of workshops was a village fete, was also an event of local cultural values. The result of these workshops was a common building of a stud wall that is now - along with an information board - a specific kind of tourist attraction of Słowino and is also a place for openair school activities of regionalism. These actions launched other projects within the village, such as the creation of lapidarium and the educational path ("The memory signs of the Darłowo land - in the footsteps of William Gross"), construction of an integration breezeway ("Act Locally"), editing of the international website of the village Słowino.

Opolski Dezyderat w Sprawie Przestrzeni Wiejskiej
The Opole Desideratum about the Rural Space
Marek Wiland
Michał Matejko
Ryszard Wilczyński
Iwona Solisz
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak
Zbigniew Kuriata
Maria Burian
Agnieszka Sałyga-Rzońca
Jarosław Gałęza
Elżbieta Wijas-Grocholska
Maria Głogiewicz
Jerzy Przybyła

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