pol    eng


1/2012 - Nowe tendencje w kształtowaniu krajobrazu / The New Trends in Landscaping

AK 2012 1   Nr 1/2012, vol. 34

Nowe tendencje w kształtowaniu krajobrazu
The New Trends in Landscaping



Inspiracje i pomysły aranżacyjne w projektowaniu terenów zieleni na przykładzie wybranych obiektów turystyki wiejskiej na Warmii i Mazurac
The Inspirations and the Arrangement Ideas in Design of Green Areas on the Example of Some Rural Tourism Facilities in Warmia and Mazury
Iwona Połucha


The paper focused on problems of design of rural gardens and their adaptation to the needs of tourism and recreation. It presents the sources of inspiration and some ideas for arrangement. The green areas around the rural tourism facilities combine the functions of home garden and a small public garden, intended for tourists. Development of these areas increases attractiveness of place and affects the image of the facilietes, also aims at maintaining the identity of the village. Owners of rural tourist enterprises are interested in animation or the focus of their offer. They should cooperate with garden designers, whose ideas are adapted to local conditions, take into account tradition of the place, style of architecture, and features of the countryside.

Ogród terapeutyczny - studium na przykładzie parku rehabilitacyjnego na terenie Stadionu Olimpijskiego we Wrocławiu
Therapy Garden - Study on the Example of the Rehabilitation Park in the Olympic Stadium in Wrocław
Aleksandra Lis
Ewa Podhajska
Lucyna Górska-Kłęk


This paper describes the analysis and structuring of ways of proceeding and patterns of spatial-formal solutions of the rehabilitation park designed in terms to minimize its cost. Research groups were students of landscape architecture (University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wrocław) and Physiotherapy (College of Physical Education in Wrocław) solving a real project problem - the concept of a rehabilitation park at the rehabilitation center and the Academy of Physical Education in the Olympic Stadium in Wrocław. There were used in this work the analytical and synthetic methods - starting with an analysis of conditions and restrictions, diagnose of problems and determining the underlying assumptions, the possible lines of the project action were crystallized consolidating them into clear structures. The presented results of research and conceptual works of authors and research groups show that the primary factor influencing the structuring of the right directions of the spatial-program modeling of park with a rehabilitation function are not only targets of rehabilitation programs, but also the economic conditions - in this case the assumption of low-budget project that seemingly restricting possibilities of activities influenced as a result these activities clean-up and stimulated the responsible choices.

Funkcja wypoczynkowa a krajobraz wsi górskich Sudetów Wschodnich - studium przypadku czy determinacji
The Holiday Functions but the Landscape of the Mountain's Village Eastern Sudeten Mountains - the Case Study or the Determination
Jerzy Oleszek


Highlands are an area predisposed to the development of the holiday function, hence the essential problem: - whether the current figure of the holiday infrastructure enriches or lowers a value of the landscape villages of the Eastern Sudeten Mountains. Analyses are indicating the huge asymmetry between raised still in 70ties or 80ties, holiday objects, located in the space of the village of holiday houses and old, often neglected country building development. The number of weekend objects new, being characterized by a different form of the lump, or the attempt of the reactivation of wooden buildings, it causes of the gradual disappearance of the local form and the decline of the historically formed landscape of the village. A new formula is formed; the profile is still unclear however.


Osiedla ekologiczne a krajobraz (po polsku)
Ecological Housing-Estates and the Landscape (in a Polish Way)
Jan Kamiński


The article presents present condition of development of ecological housing estates in Poland and suggests the way to make housing estate friendly for the landscape. The main thesis of article is that: housing estate can be regarded truly ecological if it is friendly for the landscape, which is an important component of the environment. Phenomenon of ecological housing estates is marked by diversity in understanding the idea and ways of its realization. It includes: theoretical studies, activity of architecture enthusiasts, realizations of real estate development and initiatives at the stage of a project. Additionally, there are some situations when an "ecological housing estate" is only a name - it serves solely as a way to built new housing estates in protected areas or achieve other commercial targets. All these occurrences are creating new phenomena in Polish landscape.  Essential conditions with is necessary to take into consideration at design and realization the ecological housing estates are: location, spatial structure, functional solutions, architectural form, and the applied technologies. Order of named terms, corresponding to their importance, can be a pattern of the method of the planning and the evaluation of ecological housing estates.

Poszukiwanie nowego krajobrazu obszarów poprzemysłowych
Searching for New Postindustrial Landscape Areas
Alina Pancewicz


Today, in cities and postindustrial agglomerations the presence of degraded areas, their scale, lack of ideas for re-use, breadth of hazards, lack of planning tools and methods and financial resources, makes the restoration of balance between nature and culture, while meeting the needs of man, is complicated. The restoration of the landscape, equivalent to the achievement of balance between the natural and built environment becomes, in many cases, a luxury that not every city or region can afford. In many cases, however, what constitutes a threat can become an opportunity to create a new image of the postindustrial areas. Sometimes the bold vision and a creative approach are enough to see in the degraded landscape the beauty and turn it into a new quality.The new landscape is creating, which can be harmonious despite the scale of transformations. The challenge for the conversion of postindustrial landscapes is a combination of technological solutions with the social and environmental factor, while the process of creative finding new values. In this context, identification of natural values of the postindustrial areas, an indication of particularly valuable places worthy of protection, preservation or processing, and new management, took on special significance. An opportunity that can bring the postindustrial areas economic, social and environmental benefits becomes the use of the anthropogenic elements of the natural environment such as: dumps, pits or artificial water reservoirs. Creating through them a new landscape the features of the individual degraded elements are no longer only peculiarities, they become distinctive values of an area. In combination with the possibility of forming a new image and the necessary technical innovation, these values are an attraction, whose popularity and skillful use can restore the spatial order and affect the perception way of contemporary cities and postindustrial agglomerations.


Nowe możliwości dokumentowania historycznych założeń ogrodowych na przykładzie zespołu pałacowo-parkowego w Maluszynie
New Prospects for the Documentation of Historic Garden Layouts, Illustrated with the Example of the Palace and Park Complex in Maluszyn
Iwona Brankiewicz
Małgorzata Milecka


The method of the elementary study of resources, and the current state and forms of heritage protection for historic garden layouts, are defined by the guidelines for the compiling of records for horticultural monuments (in accordance with the all-Polish programme of records of historic gardens). This method is generally used and very valuable, as thanks to this there are standard, reviewed documentations of historical garden and landscape compositions nationwide. It needs to be emphasised, however, that a large number of records compiled at the beginning of the programme (in the years 1970-1980) do not meet the requirements specified for such documentations, and, above all, they are out of date. At the same time this record is frequently the only documentation of a historic garden, based on which elementary restorers' decisions are made, and it also often represents the only source of knowledge about such a monument, so is used for all kinds of purposes. The updating of documentation for historic garden compositions is for many reasons a matter of great urgency and in the context of the tools available at the moment, and the increasing number of qualified people, it seem possible for it to be conducted effectively. Current documentation, compiled in accordance with a unified method, would definitely contribute to an improvement in historic landscape management, including the making of the right decisions in terms of restoration and planning. Updates of records would form the basis for defining the real transformations of garden layouts which had occurred since the time of compiling the first recorded documents, and which also represents great value. This would allow the definition of the directions for the evolution of historical compositions and the identification of threats, and, in consequence, to determine the right means of conservation for the diminishing resources of Polish garden design. The subject used as an example in this article to present the method of documenting and analysing spatial transformations is the park and palace complex in Maluszyn, truly magnificent in the past, currently preserved in fragmentary condition and de facto evanescing in the modern settlement structure.

Rewaloryzacja parku dworskiego w Rybieńcu
Revalorization of Historical Park in Rybieniec
Maria Chojnacka
Agnieszka Wilkaniec
Piotr Urbański


Manorial estate in Rybieniec has been legally protected since year 1999, when it was included to register of monuments with number 17/Wlkp/A. Manor consist of manor house build in 1910 and park from the turn of XIXth and XXth century, with area of 2,7 ha. Manor farm, which were a part of Rybieniec manorial estate is not existing anymore. There is only one non historical, partly demolished building, elevated by PGR (Państwowe Gospodarstwo Rolne - State agricultural farm). Manor farm was used by PRG after Second World War.  All spatial complex is picturesque localized on a slope over lake. Manor hause and park have good landscape exposition from a road leading to Rybieniec, because of high location in terrain. The aim of the studies is to investigate composition of trees and shrubs species and collecting information of historical spatial arrangement of the park. In 2009 garden inventory within dendrological inventory was made, also historical studies were completed. In 2010 project of revalorization of historical park were started.  Due to completed studies richness of composition of trees and shrubs species was displayed also historical spatial arrangement of the park and arrangement of historical plantings were identified. Results of studies were used in revalorization project.

Tożsamooeć krajobrazu podstawą programu rewitalizacji terenów nadwodnych w Goeteborgu w Szwecji. "Nowy - stary krajobraz"
Landscape Identification as the Basis for Regeneration Model of Waterfronts in Gothenbourg in Sweden. "New - Known Landscape"
Eliza Sochacka-Sutkowska


Goteborg in Sweden is one of those harbour cities, which development has been determined by the functional issues of waterfront location, being in the past a world famous shipyard centre. Thereby city had remained cut off from the waterfront - in public aspect. Due to establish the sustainable development of the industrial waterfronts and make them accessible the city initiated in late 70-ties a regeneration process. Analysis of the Älvstranden Utveckling process allows to specify it, as a case of the long-term, nonlinear planning process - the comprehensive and successful investment, which is based on wide public participation. A determinant of the regeneration scheme was to take care of history embodied in area due to preserve the identity of developed area and gain the sustainability and high quality environment. The waterfront's public realm has became the functionally attractive and spatial unique. Housing, enterprise, science and commerce are developed besides preserved former shipyard infrastructure. The history is clearly legible in landscape and relationship between the inhabitants and environment is carefully encouraged. Developed waterfronts creates the identity of the entire city, through its significant new, but known expression of landscape.

Odnowiony krajobraz poprzemysłowy. Studium przypadku w Covilha, Portugalia
Renewal of Industrial Cityscape. Case Study in Covilha, Portugal
Anna Marta Włodarczyk


Miejski krajobraz Portugalii w XXI wieku jest zdominowany w dużej części przez procesy rewitalizacji. Geneza przemysłowej epoki produkcji wełny w Covilha sięga XVII wieku. Obszar w latach 1980-tych zaczyna się przekształcać w przestrzeń naukową. UBI (Uniwersytetu da Beira Interior). Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie różnych form krajobrazu urbanistycznego, uwzględniającego minione stulecia działalności człowieka.
Obecnie w analizowanym mieście możemy obserwować proces odtwarzania (odnowy) panoram miejskich a także widoków o mniejszej skali. Jest to główny oryginalny wątek niniejszego opracowania. Wyniki pracy wydobywają walory krajobrazowego kształtowania dawnej przestrzeni przemysłowej. Podstawą artykułu jest literatura związana z tematem oraz badania in situ prowadzone w Portugalii od roku 2001 do chwili obecnej.


Priorytety przyrodnicze i społeczne w rewitalizacji terenów poprzemysłowych kompleksu Emscher Landschaftspark w Niemczech
Scientific and Social Aspects of Postindustrial Areas' Revitalization of Emscher Landscape Park in Germany
Kinga Kimic


The Emscher Landscape Park complex, situated at the Emscher River's surroundings in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia's Ruhr coalbasin, was created on strongly demoted post-industrial terrains. Since 90's of 20th century there have been served a purpose to restore them into the nature. The revitalization's processes concerned on two equivalent priorities: scientific and social. Scientific aspect based on renaturation connected with creation of potential conditions to revegetation and plants' development, then initiation of constant natural processes. Fundamental tasks of social aspect based on improving the inhabitants' quality of life: the assurance of contact with nature, the possibility of many forms of rest's realized in public parks, gardens and open landscape. Also based on the regional post-industrial objects' cultural features' preservation connected with it's secular tradition. Both directions of development stay in close relation completing each other.

Przykładowy zbiór efektów kształcenia dla kierunku architektura krajobrazu
The Exemplary Set of Benchmarks for Degree Programmes in Landscape Architecture
Zbigniew Kuriata
Aleksandra Lis
Łukasz Pardela


The idea of opportunity of knowledge acquisition at several different academic centers has led to the concept of a European Higher Education Area (EOSW), where will oblige the common principles of organization of higher education. Assuming that this idea is feasible when there are tools for comparing the qualifications obtained in different areas and forms of learning in different locations, there were provided the frameworks of qualifications - the European and National frameworks. The project of 10 September 2010 amending the Law on Higher Education assumed that the basis for training programs at colleges and universities will be the National Qualifications Frameworks for Higher Education, including a description, with the term of learning outcomes, qualifications obtained in the Polish system of higher education. In addition, the minister responsible for higher education was to determine, by regulation, after consultation with the Central Council of Science and Higher Education, the standard learning outcomes for particular fields of study, considering the level and profile of education in different areas of education, as well as existing courses of study. The authors of the paper were part of a team that in 2011 prepared a sample set of learning outcomes for the course landscape architecture. They set out in this paper the main assumptions to develop.

Doliny rzeczne w planowaniu i zagospodarowaniu przestrzennym
River Valleys in Spatial Planning and Creation of Land-use
Wiesława Strabel


The paper is based on experiences in the field of the theory and praxis of spatial planning and creation of land-use of river valleys. The conclusions, which result from the analysed examples are presented in two aspects. The first introductory one, is the geomorphological point of view of spatial planning as a reaction towards the hitherto fact of overbuilding the areas of river valleys. The second one is underlining the cultural and landscape values in spatial land-use of river valleys. This seems to be the chance for the present urban planning, since making the new revitalised public spaces accessible for inhabitants of cities and towns is significant. The examples here are, among others, the author's projects of landuse plans, master plans, and the projects realised in praxis.


Krajobraz forteczny poligonem wymiany doświadczeń edukacyjno-naukowych
Fortification Landscape as Training Ground for the Exchange of Educational and Scientific Experiences
Zofia Mavar
Dražen Arbutina


The Austrian monarchy, in particular the military authorities of the Austrian cesarian court, had important contribution in shaping the cultural landscape of Croatia since the eighteenth century to the First World War. In the system of fortress landscapes Pula occupies an important place, a city located in the southwestern part of the peninsula Istra. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the 90s of the twentieth century, a major factor in development of the city was a military function. The impressive resource of defense architecture considering of continuation of the military functions was for decades not available to researchers. Only the political change in the 90's open up the possibility of systematic recording and stimulation test program, and at the same time and effective methods to protect endangered resources and seeking ways of the new development. Realization of the program with the participation of students initiated the Board of Preservation of Monuments of the Ministry of Culture, and the work was inaugurated in 2001. The clearly defined program had the objective of exchanging of informations and training in the assembly of historical and technical documentation, in performing the documentation of preservation state, and all studies and analysis for the valorization, as well as proposals for the sanitation of objects and land development. The field education program was supported by seminar lectures on selected topics, and numerous discussions. Due to the lack of native specialists in the field of defensive architecture it appeared to need to use the experience of professionals and researchers from another country. In the first years of the program were attended students of architecture from home and abroad, and with the development of the program in later years and other fields of study: landscape architecture, art history, construction, geography, even the fine arts. The article points the decennary experiences in the organization of field and research work, and preparation of students for professional communication and interdisciplinary collaboration. Workshop of Board of Cultural Heritage Protection of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia proved to be very good training ground for the improvement of educational and professional working methods in the field of protection and revalorization of monuments and cultural landscape. Fieldwork experiences are reflected in the development of curricula, and often influenced the selection of semester work, graduate and even doctoral work items. In the final part of the article it includes the evaluation of the long-term cooperation and results of workshops by a representative of academic environment, which participated in the workshops.

Parki Barcelony - od stylu modernisme po współczesne krajobrazy tworzone "od-nowa"
Barcelona Parks - since Modernisme Style up to Contemporary Formation of "Anew" Landscapes
Izabela Sykta


Presented in the article review of former and contemporary parks in Barcelona starts with the objects representative for the Catalonian trend of Art Nouveau, defined here as modernisme style. It was signalized in local garden art at the end of 19th century in Ciutadella Park, and then developed in successive realizations up to the thirties of 20th century, with its most emblematic creation - Park Güell, designed by Antoni Gaudi. Changes in the landscape composition and parquitecture material up to contemporary times have been visible in creative evolution and transformation of modernisme tradition, and - on the other hand - in new, disregarding from tradition individual search. The most distinguished realizations presenting this trend are parks located at postindustrial areas (i.e. Parc de l'Espanya Industrial, Parc de la Creueta del Coll), 'olimpic' parks, realized for Olimpic Games in 1992 in Barcelona (i.e. parks at Montjüic, Parc de les Cascades, Parc de la Vall d'Hebron), thematic gardens (i.e. Barcelona Botanical Garden) and anew landscapes, such as Parc Central de Nou Barris, Parc de l'Estació del Nord, Parc Diagonal Mar, Parc del Auditoris and many others. These newest contemporary objects - concentrated on anew creation - surprise with different ways of sculpturing landscape using original sculptural installations, land art techniques and artistic and structural potentiality of concrete and steel. Greenery as a parquitecture material plays complementing role and seems to be subordinated by architectural and sculptural creation. This characteristic for new Barcelona parks feature infixes into the newest global tendencies in designing of public parks. But by the other hand - especially in the context of sculptural modeling of space - we can find in their disposition and individual elements reverberating echoes of creativity of Gaudi and other artists of modernisme style.

Space and Time in Art Przestrzeń i czas w sztuce
Space and Time in Art
Larissa L. Alekseyeva


Na przestrzeni wieków obserwuje się łączność dwóch dziedzin sztuki - architektury i muzyki. Artykuł opiera się na idei Schellinga "architektura jest muzyką w przestrzeni". W tekście omówiono przykłady gotyckich katedr w Kolonii i Wrocławiu, stanowiących inspirację muzyki Schumanna, następnie pałacu Alhambra będącego natchnieniem preludium Debussy'ego oraz architektury Kijowa mającej wpływ na muzykę Mussorgskiego. Zrozumienie łączności dzieł architektury i muzyki może okazać się pomocne w artystycznym rozwoju młodzieży.

Copyright 2020 - arch.krajobrazu
Adres redakcji:

Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu
Instytut Architektury Krajobrazu
ul. Grunwaldzka 55, 50-357 Wrocław
tel. +48 71 320 18 63

        Realizacja: Agency 3motion