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2/2011 - Krajobraz od-nowa / Landscape a-new

AK 2-11a   Nr 2/2011, vol. 31

Krajobraz od-nowa
Landscape a-new



Ochrona i tworzenie piękna - jak tego nauczać?
Preservation and Creation of Beauty
Aleksander Böhm


The oldest, and the most popular definition of landscape architecture says, that its most important function is to create and preserve beauty in the surroundings of human habitations and in the boarder natural scenery of the country. The task defined as above, obliged us to the two different kinds of teaching. The first - oriented to the preservation - is easer, the second one - creation - is more difficult. The landscape is not a picture or a sculpture. It is a continuum and it has no limits. Even the schools of arts does not well prepared to creation of such a tasks. The creation in the such scale should be oriented to the composition factor in the scale of spatial planning, or better to say in the space of huge range. Following up off the T. Jefferson we can call it "the art of embellishing grounds by fancy". Instead of it, our students are overloaded by the easer, but vapid practice: the inventories of existing state of landscape and its classifications. The title of or conference is a good occasion to say about it and to change it.

Rola małych miast i wsi o tradycjach miejskich w krajobrazie kulturowym
The Role of Small Towns and Villages with Urban Traditions in the Cultural Landscape
Zuzanna Borcz
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak


Praca stanowi próbę analizy transformacji małych miast we wsie oraz wsi w miasta. Obszar badań obejmuje Dolny Śląsk oraz Opolszczyznę i Lubuskie. Do badań wybrano zdegradowane miasta, które na przestrzeni dziejów utraciły prawa miejskie w wyniku wojen, pożarów, zarazy jak również wyczerpania złóż rudy żelaza i kopalń węgla. Do chwili obecnej około połowa z nich utrzymała swój miejski wygląd i odzyskała utracone prawa miejskie. Natomiast innymi miejscowościami są wsie, w których do dzisiaj zachował się miejski charakter. W badaniach przeprowadzono analizę historycznego charakteru rozważanych miejscowości oraz wnioski z obecnego stanu hierarchii sieci osadniczej.

Nowe podejście do ochrony krajobrazu kulturowego - budowanie tożsamości lokalnej w oparciu o czytelną narrację krajobrazową
New Approach in Cultural Landscape Protection - Strengthening the Local Identity by a Legible Landscape Narratio
Elżbieta Raszeja
Anna Gałecka


The article is based on cultural landscape research conducted by the authors in Rogalin in 2010. The research resulted in the village development strategy document. Many problems and conflicts in Rogalin are strongly connected with a gradual loss of landscape form legibility, which have two main reasons. The first is increasing urbanization pressure, caused by the neighbouring Poznan conurbation; the other is the inappropriately managed tourism, which is focused on the Raczynski family manor residence, avoiding other, potentially attractive parts of the village. Solving the spatial conflicts was possible thanks to the recognition of historical structures recognition and also by the designation of the character and meaning of traces established in the cultural landscape. Inside the village local memorial places could be found, which despite the gradual loss of its meaning still exists in the village population's awareness. The article's assumption implies that cultural landscape protection efficiency is dependent on its structure legibility. Also the local communities are more able to participate in the protection of places which are understood. It is necessary to answer the question which tools should be used in the reconstruction, enhancement and protection of landscape character. The village development strategy implies innovative solutions based on legible historical traces. The proposal for Rogalin provides not only adaptation of historical buildings, but also other landscape narrative ideas, such as spatial structure reconstruction, rebuilding scenic links, using phantoms, signs and symbols. The primary aim is not to create an open air museum, but protect the vitality and authenticity of Rogalin landscape as a place of human life.


Krajobraz od-dawna, od-zaraz, od-nowa. Czyli od krajobrazu zrównoważonego do inercyjnego i znijaczonego
Landscape for a Long Time - Right Now and a New One - from Sustainable Landscape to the Inertial Even Futureless One
Zbigniew Myczkowski
Wojciech Rymsza-Mazur


Landscape, which is a product of natural forces and human works, defined in many ways by representatives of such disciplines as geography, botany, ecology, geology or landscape architecture - seems to invariably be a "show environment" of human life. It is described in many scenes, seen at different scales, analyzed, protected and shaped by multiple methods and using a rich set of measures and ways developing for centuries. However, we can assume that only a man finds himself in the landscape as his interpreter of its existing "characteristics" and that he can transform them in a way that is motivated by different needs. Regardless of the omnipotence of natural forces, which, by natural disasters, earthquakes, floods, fires, extreme climatic factors are able to change the "faces of the earth", in a far faster, more efficient and large-area way, it is the man "present in the environment," which explores and makes sense the existing and transformed landscapes. Landscape attributed his eternal harmonious expression, leading and inspiring the balanced and sustainable actions, rejecting the destruction and devastation as a principle or method, and even the goal of visible human actions is commonly associated with the existing character of the world "for a long time". It is not always coincided with the truth, but the mere fact of a much lower technical capabilities during the past shows us the "sustainable landscapes", with the very power of nature and the creations of culture increasingly present with their structures and their unusual scale already of the ancient cities, buildings, forts, roads or ports seem to type in landscape or even respect him. The momentum of the contemporary, industrial, modern and postmodern, or even hyper-modern era, so to speak, "forced" the creation of landscape architecture as an art of shaping a space for meeting human needs across the landscape also filled with the mission of caring for the beauty in the surrounding of human habitations. Expression of the industrial and the post-industrial era seem to be landscapes implemented "immediately", buildings, cities, fortresses, factories, dams and those destroyed and changed " instantly " as a result even if warfare. This all is with the man "here and now." How, then, to imagine a new landscape or anew landscape in the coming decades or even centuries? Will the post-modern and hyper-modern man feel the need to stare at "the old identity of a place"? Will he build on the continuity of tradition and respect for what he received in the great act of creatio ex nihilo (= creation of nothing)? The all-powerful competition, universal "madness of profit," pseudo-freedom will not be in the "new" or even "anew" landscapes expressed with general insipidity and specific inertial character of the landscape, which tells us to live in non-places in an ever faster and more frequent movement? The authors are trying to find answers to these questions both in the concepts of preservation and conservation of landscape or landscape architecture objects, as well as their revalorization, and finally - creation in the area and scale of natural, rural, fortified, urban or park and garden landscapes.


Folwark Wilanowski - zapomniane miejsce historyczne
Wilanów Manorial Economy - a Forgotten Historic Site
Małgorzata Kaczyńska
Anna Różańska


Area of the former Wilanów manorial economy is localized to the south of the Wilanów residence (presently a seat of the Wilanów Palace Museum) and historically constitutes its integral compositional element. Only recently spatial arrangement of the manorial economy, in a great measure, was still visible. Still today exists a large part of farm buildings. The manorial economy terrain is legally protected only as a part of the monumental urban complex of Wilanów. The area is not separately included in the monuments register. Despite still visible spatial values of the manorial economy, recently, construction of the new apartment house complex within the area was authorized. The new housing buildings were introduced to the terrain between the Wilanów Lake, constituting a water axis of the Wilanów landscape park and the Stanisław Kostka Potocki's street, historical road connecting the Wilanów residence with the manorial economy, encroaching on the former manorial economy courtyard. Introducing the new apartment house complex destroyed historical spatial composition of the manorial economy. Furthermore, multi-storey apartment houses dwarf historical farm buildings. Although the existing monumental buildings are planned to be preserved and adapted, their present technical condition and threats evoked by the new neighborhood are alarming. The article is aimed to briefly outline problems of conservator's protection of the Wilanów manorial economy which result from insufficient legal protection and complicated structure of landownership. It also tries to analyze how we can counteract negative transformations in its spatial structure.

Nowy krajobraz jako efekt zagospodarowania turystycznego na przykładzie obiektu Bukovel na Ukrainie
New Landscape as a Result of the Tourist Development Based on the Bukovel Facility in Ukraine
Emilia Marks


The mountainous areas from their nature are predetermined for the development of the specialty tourism, i.e. mountain hiking and skiing. The downhill skiing especially requires special resources in the form of ski routes and ski lifts. Development of such technical bases within the space happens at the expense of the existing vegetation, especially the trees, which in the natural way reduce the danger of erosion, avalanches and the spring floods in the mountains. Incorrectly designed and placed accommodation facilities become other foreign objects as well. The Bukovel facility is located in the eastern Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine. It is the largest skiing complex in that country; build in the so far natural mountainous landscape. On the slopes of three neighboring mountains 20 ski routes were marked out with the combined length of 55 km and 20 ski lifts were built. The whole investment is planned for 120 km of routes and double the number of lifts, which will devour more of the pristine territories. Between the ski routes many accommodation and support facilities are being built in the high concentration and very dynamically. The Bukovel ski complex is an example of the extensively aggressive consumption of the space for the tourism and recreation purposes. At this moment we can observe the total physiognomy transformation of this, until recently, natural landscape. Transformations this rapid result in the destabilization of the ecosystem. Within the territory of the operation, the week links can be observed in the form of erosion damage, dying trees and at this moment it is impossible to estimate the influence of those changes on the surrounding area.


Studia struktury i kondycji zieleni miejskiej w Orle
Study of the Structure and Condition of Orel Street Plantings
Elena Zolotareva


Zieleń stanowi nieodzowny element miejskiego krajobrazu. Rośliny przyczyniają się do polepszenia środowiska - pomagają zwalczać hałas, wzbogacają atmosferę w tlen i usuwają dwutlenek węgla. Charakterystyczną cechą odróżniającą miejską florę od flory naturalnej jest silniejszy dynamizm i duża rozmaitość roślin. Orel jest położony w środkowej części Centralnej Wyżyny Rosyjskiej. Drzewa w mieście są słabe, ponieważ w Orle występuje silny wpływ antropogeniczny z powodu istnienia na jego obszarze fabryk reprezentujących prawie wszystkie gałęzie przemysłu. W badaniach oszacowano parametry taksonów zieleni w Orle, stwierdzając występowanie 78 taksonów drzew i krzewów.

Współczesne krajobrazy pamięci
Contemporary Memorial Landscapes
Agnieszka Gębczyńska-Janowicz


Monument creations are spatial carriers of collective memory, bringing in a natural landscape compositions resulting from the integration of different fine arts. The large-spatial formula of the memorial place was developed in the Polish monumental art in the 60s of the twentieth century. Artists inspired by the novel design concepts (including Open Form of Oskar Hansen) began to create spatial visualizations of memory in places of significant historical events.There arose poignant monument creations on areas of the former extermination camps like Death Camp Victims Memorial in Treblinka, or Monument to Struggle and Martyrdom in Majdanek. The famous battlefields sites (Grunwald, Westerplatte) were also architectural organized, which became the inspiration for the event organizers called historical reconstructions. Landscapes of memory also appeared in the space of Polish cities. The Polish culture can boast of realizations of commemorative art which are innovative in the world. In the twenty-first century, the spatial form of remembrance is still growing, varied with new elements arising from the cultural conditions and new experiences in the art of remembrance.


Przestrzeń interakcyjna w mieście
Interactional Space in Town
Aleksandra Lis
Ada Fudała


One of the most important consequences of the design relating to human behavior is to facilitate or to discourage contacts between people. The method of shaping of the physical space can affect the way of the social space use. The concept of an interactional space corresponds to a holistic approach of place in which a set of spatial-physical attributes assisting social contacts in a particular location creates a appropriate situation for social contacts. The interactional nature of public spaces in the city is affected by several functional, structural and aesthetic factors of the environment. The presented paper describes these factors and shows on selected examples how they are used in the analysis of interactive features of public space.

Sytuacja krajobrazowa opactw cysterskich w Polsce w kontekście obowiązujących form ich ochrony
The Landscape Situation of Cistercian Monasteries in Poland in the Context of the Current Forms of their Protection
Małgorzata Milecka


In the Middle Ages in the area of today's Poland the Order of Cistercians founded twenty six male monasteries located in the historical Polish regions of Lesser Poland, Greater Poland, Silesia and Pomerania. Nowadays, in the age of the search for common cultural origins, it is the Cistercians who can be pronounced the forerunners of the united Europe. Hence, it is essential to identify and protect the relics of the Order which from the beginning of its existence has been connected with farming and has become an important part of the landscape of the countries where it built its monasteries. The cultural and landscape virtues of every monastery and its surrounding lands make it our obligation to put them under special protection. The destruction of historical architecture and the dangers of the rapid urbanization of Poland, together with the general lack of land utilization plans give every right to claim that now is our final chance to classify all that is still left from historical Cistercian landscapes in Poland, and to explore the directions in which they evolved in the context of their obvious links to European art. It is certain that only detailed analyses of functional and spatial transformations can tell us something about the development that Cistercian landscape compositions have undergone. Only on that basis can we predict further changes, identify possible dangers and establish the laws of protection suitable for the discussed group of historic monuments. Presenting forms of cultural and environmental protection applicable for post-Cistercian landscape can help to predict future architectural transformations of monastic and postmonastic complexes, assuming, of course, they are effective and that the urbanization rush on protected areas is brought to a halt. It should be stressed that analyzing landscape of architectural complexes dating back to medieval times gives solid ground to establish the direction of transformations and new development tendencies connected with the urbanization of land previously managed by the Cistercians and being today utilized in a variety of other ways. The conclusions of such analyses are universal, since not only do they make us realize what spatial solutions has led contemporary society to take over landscape to a such a great extent, but also enable us to see the dangers that come with excessive landscape anthropogenisation.

Edukacyjne aspekty ogrodów jako fenomen sztuki
Educational Aspects of Gardens as Phenomena of Art
Elena Polyudova


W artykule przedstawiono architekturę krajobrazu jako element humanistycznego wychowania. Istnieje wiele możliwości kształtowania percepcji studentów poprzez filozofię ogrodów. Poznawanie stylów architektury krajobrazu ułatwia rozwój kreatywności, zdolności i działań artystycznych. W artykule omówiono różnorodne edukacyjne metody rozwijające doznania estetyczne studentów, komunikatywność, zdolności społeczne rozumienia teorii, umiejętność publicznych wystąpień. Mając na uwadze praktyczny cel edukacyjny posłużono się działalnością Claude'a Moneta w Giverny.

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