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1/2011 - Zieleń zorganizowana w krajobrazie / Green Organized in the Landscape

211   Nr 1/2011, vol. 30

Zieleń zorganizowana w krajobrazie
Green Organized in the Landscape



Wpływ malarstwa XVIII i XIX w. na styl ogrodów krajobrazowych i ich współczesne odniesienia
The Influence of the 18th and 19th Century Painting on the Style of the Landscape Gardens and their Contemporary References
Emilia Śliwczyńska
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski


The European theory of art in the 18th century was inspired by the Far Eastern art, ancient Arcadian topos and archeological and sightseeing travels. English theoreticians, like Hume, Denis, Walpole, Addison, Pope, Price, Gilpin, influenced by Neo-Platonism, regarded Nature as the source of the absolute perfection and beauty. They formulated two key categories for the new aesthetics: sublimity and picturesqueness. The inspirations drawn from the Chinese art caused changes in the structure of gardens. In England it was visible in the rejection of leading the viewer's eye through paths and compositional lines in favour of the system of observation points and views. The natural landscape again began to be imitated. Garden designers were particularly inspired by the Italian landscapes (observed during the Grand Tour) and the paintings of Salvatore Rosa, Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. Inspiration came also from landscape paintings of such artists as Constable, Turner and Crome with his "school of Norwich", created according to the new aesthetic conception. New rules in the garden design were firstly put into practice by William Kent. His apprentice, Lancelot Brown, designed rural parks, that were meant to imperceptibly merge with the landscape. The critics of Brown, influenced by the new aesthetic conceptions, wanted gardens to be picturesque and wild, diversified by the ruins of castles or abbeys. The new style called Romanticism spread over the Europe in the 19th century, as a reaction against the industrial revolution. For the sake of growing urban population numerous public gardens and promenades were founded with their individual formal features. Under the influence of H. Repton and J. Thouin the English-Chinese gardens evolved into typical landscape parks. After 1850 garden designers made an attempt to connect landscape and geometric systems with the eclectic features. The availability of the new exotic plants stimulated deliberations on the problem of colour in the garden which simultaneously appeared in painting. Such tendencies at the end of the century gave birth to the Impressionism, which was the ultimate breaking with the academic tradition. Meanwhile, the art of garden design since the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries has been inspired mainly by the achievements of the contemporary science, and lost its ability to inspire new artistic trends. To revive it is a great challenge to the contemporary garden designers.

Kwietniki gołuchowskie. Projekty Adama Kubaszewskiego - ogrodnika Jana Działyńskiego i Izabeli Czartoryskiej
Gołuchów Flower Beds. Designs of Adam Kubaszewski – a Gardener of J. Działyński and I. Czartoryska
Grażyna Ławniczak


The Warsaw-based periodical "Ogrodnik Polski" ("Polish gardener") No. 20, 1882 published a lithograph featuring the main patterned flower bed at Gołuchów. The text that accompanied this lithograph provided an extensive list of plants used in the composition of the flower bed designed by Adam Kubaszewski, the gardener to Jan Działyński and Izabella Czartoryska of Gołuchów. Gołuchów is a place one visits and then, repeatedly, goes back again and again. The castle at Gołuchów, rebuilt from ruins by Izabella Czartoryska between 1872-1885 in French Renaissance style after the design of Zygmunt Gorgolewski, features a vast collection of arts and was made accessible to the general public from the very beginning, being not only a grand residence but also a museum. Beside the new structure of the castle, in the adjacent garden a carpet of flowers was set up on a specially prepared earth terrace. A plan of the garden signed by Adam Kubaszewski and dated "Gołuchów, in March 1884" has been preserved until our times. The garden was viewed from the observation deck, built in the form of a belvedere in place of a round tower in the courtyard. It is just behind the stone balustrade of the octagonal belvedere and from behind the railing of a balcony, that a patterned flower bed stretched wide in front of the eyes of onlookers, now an empty place. Garden and courtyard furniture of the courtyard as well as decorative details were designed by the French architect Maurice Auguste Ouradou. Drawings that document the designing work of the architect for Gołuchów from the years 1876-1883 have been preserved to our times and are kept in the Archive of the Voivodship Conservator of Monuments in Poznań. The composition of the flower bed, resown every year, alluded to this historic place and was based on the patterns taken from the treatise on architecture by Sebastiano Serlio. It can be concluded that the decorative friezes by Maurice A. Ouradou, might have set a pattern for the main flower bed in Gołuchów. Adam Kubaszewski notes in his list of plants for the designed flower bed the following species: Alternanthera, Coleus (painted nettle), Iresine, Achyranthes; from succulent plants: Echeveria, Sedum, Yucca and Dracaena. In particular this way, he catalogued new cultivated plants that were being introduced to the country, brought to Europe by companies and garden associations to make European gardens more attractive. The standard ruling patterns for flower beds of the latter half of the nineteenth century were based on historical motifs taken from treatises on architecture and included exclusively plants of foreign origin.


Zróżnicowanie florystyczne wybranych alei gmin: Namysłów, Świerczów oraz Domaszowice na Dolnym Śląsku
Floristic Diversity of Selected Tree Alleys in Lower Silesian Communes: Namysłów, Świerczów and Domaszowice
Klara Tomaszewska
Aleksandra Bogdańska


One of the functions of roadside tree planting is biodiversity protection. The analysis of ten alleys from Lower Silesia region confirmed their floristic wealth. Nineteen tree species and five shrub species were recognized. Planted species forming alleys are predominant among trees; however some other species occur spontaneously in losses gaps. Each of sites was different, but two alleys attract an attention with their compositional arrangement: chestnut lane in Starościn ended with a group of old, monumental oaks surrounding a historic figure, and two-part lane in Biestrzykowice. The cherry alley in Dąbrowa Namysłowska should be covered by a special care since there are less and less alleys of this type. Floristic diversity may be seen especially clearly in the case of roadside herbaceous plants. In all analysed sites 123 species of herbaceous plant belonging to 32 families were recognised. The number of individuals from particular families was varied. The most abundant were aster family (Asteraceae), blue grass family (Poaceae) and pea family (Fabaceae). High diversity is also confirmed by the fact that only two species were present in all ten alleys, while as much as 49% of species were observed once only. Among recognized species, the predominant are those characteristic for roadsides, however also another ones from neighbouring areas may be found. The alleys may also be a place of protected species occurrence bear's-garlic ( Allium ursinum) or ones characteristic for quite other kinds of sites triangle pink (Dianthus deltoides).

Zieleń w krajobrazie kulturowym rynków miejscowości w centralnej Polsce
Greenery in Cultural Landscape of Town Markets in Central Poland's Settlements
Sebastian Wróblewski


There are over three hundred settlements in Poland, deprived of the town-rights in different historical periods. Those of the Polish central feature unique cultural landscape, which is distinguished by preserved urban system dating from the medieval site. The accession of Poland to the European Union gave a new impulse to revalorization-works in the markets of former towns. One of the key aspects in those works becomes public green-area, which historically is a new element in market squares. Until the 19th century greenery could be found only at the graveyards close to the town churches, while town markets where devoid of it. First attempts of the introduction of greenery in the market area were made after the 1st world war. Most of green appeared in the markets after 1945. There were mostly chaotic realizations, which destroyed the inner space of markets. Contemporary revalorization designs of greenery inside the market-spaces present different levels: from narrowly arrangements, through sort of incidental works, to coherent and complete designs based on conservatory recommendations.


Aleja jako wyznacznik stanu zachowania tożsamości europejskiego krajobrazu kulturowego na przykładzie Polski południowo-wschodniej
Alley as a Determinant of the Conservation Status of the Identity of the European Cultural Landscape on the Example of South- Eastern Poland
Elżbieta Przesmycka


The problems of landscaping of Poland become in recent times significant. On a level with the protection of the natural environment they become the determinant of national culture, its environmental and aesthetic awareness. The article presents the role of the alley in shaping the identity of the Polish cultural landscape, including in the background of legal requirements. The road or a street apart from acting communication functions is also an element which orders the space. In many places of Poland, both the city tissue, this with historic values as well as former transport routes through various measures, including spatial transformations have been undergone and continue to undergo major reconstruction, which is often equivalent to the destruction of tree stand primarily. The remaining alleys in the contemporary perception of the urban landscape are the cultural heritage, mindlessly destroyed by more than 60 last years. Different activities superimpose here, both planning and cultural activities supported by most flawed, ineffective legislation, which provides no effective protection of alleys and the historic tree stand for today at roads, in the sacral and sepulchral setting-ups. Many historic alleys do not longer exist, although today's roads and streets were mostly carried out along the historic trails. The article focuses on the causes of this phenomenon. The article presents the history of legislation on the greens, which existed in Poland since the XVIII century, the rules on the order of planting and maintaining trees on public roads from 1922, from 1936, which had a significant impact on shaping the identity of the cultural landscape in Poland.

Echa Teatru Ostantkino
Echoes of Theatre Ostantkino
Elena P. Kabkova


Almost all new buildings in Moscow that would initially puzzle and amuse its residents never seemed to fit the city landscape. With the passage of time, however, sometimes it was a short and sometimes a very long period, they would be absorbed by the city. The seven buildings that were erected in Moscow in late 1940's-early 1950's and called "Stalin skyscrapers", were initially conceived as the symbols of the political system and not as architectural highlights. The history of Moscow's development is extremely dramatic, and over the previous century, passions were only getting hotter. Many buildings of historic and artistic value have been deleted from the list of architectural monuments under state protection. The process continues to this day, due to the efforts of poorly educated, selfish bureaucrats and unscrupulous developers. The heavy wheel of Moscow not only knocks together everything that comes within the scope of its power, but also with unexpected care preserves some of the objects that by all indications stood no chance to survive the hard times and dramatic events in the history of the city. One of such object is the Ostankino Estate - an architectural landmark of the 17th and 18th centuries that was originally located outside the city limits, but with the passage of time, became part of the growing city and is now firmly established in its metaphysical essence. According to all known sources, theatre turned into Nikolai Sheremetev's life passion, and, as the contemporary cliché goes, theater turned into the area of application of his professional interests. Construction of Ostankino palace theatre began in 1790, and continued for more than six years. In Ostankino theatre, before entering the theater hall, the audience walked through a gallery in rooms displaying sculptures, paintings, prints, and works of decorative art. When the palace-theatre building was started, park Ostankino which was created by the specially invited gardener Manners, was in the deplorable condition, however thanks to Nikolaj Petrovich's efforts it was quickly restored and has found more huge magnificence. It is known that plants for park were specially sent from the foreign greenhouses and then to the cedars, oaks and lindens which remained since the foundation of park there were added the various bushes, grapevines braiding the decorative lattices and pergolas, covering the owners of manor from the immodest sights because the solitude and private life became more and more significant and valuable.

Zieleń jako element kompozycji urbanistycznej na przykładzie Wrocławia i Kopenhagi
Public Greenery as the Part of Urban Composition on the Example of Wroclaw and Copenhagen
Martyna Surma


The article "Public greenery as part of urban composition on the example of Wrocław and Copenhagen," discusses the problem of the composition of urban landscape with particular reference to plant material in a relationship with the surrounding architecture. The introductory part presents the psychological and philosophical aspect of the above-mentioned theme, including an analysis and explanation of the terms "perception" and "space". Then there are mentioned spatial elements that affect the observer and their impact on the reception way of environment by people living in urban areas. The next chapter is the presentation of systems of green in the composition of the city and the introduction in the shaping of green in relation to architecture. There is raised a point of floors, walls and ceiling in the shaping of urban space and interiors and openings in the urban landscape. Summary is a presentation of examples of compositionalspatial solutions observed on areas of Wrocław and Copenhagen.


Analiza oczekiwań osób z dysfunkcją wzroku wobec cech i funkcji ogrodów
The Analysis of Expectations of Features and Functions of Gardens Represented by People with Visual Disfunction
Anita Woźny
Anna Lauda


The article presents the results of the inquiry refer the most important characteristic of gardens for disabled people. The researches were conducted with blind and poor sight people in Center for Blind People in Bydgoszcz. People with visual impairment indicated that the safety and convenience of moving as well as access are the most important features of gardens. The results of the study show that presence of the guide, properly prepared informations boards and mockups increase attractiveness of the gardens. These gardens play an essential role in the rehabilitation and education by people with visual disability and also improve quality of life of disabled people.

Trawa pampasowa ozdobą parków i ogrodów
Pampas Grass as Decoration of Parks and Gardens
Franciszek Gospodarczyk
Marek Liszewski


Grasses were appreciated in decorating of gardens only in the twentieth century, nonetheless the perennial nurseries and garden centres offer today a wide assortment of plants from this group. These plants are primarily ornamental thanks to habit, leafs and inflorescences. Their features are gaining importance when we try to associate them with other perennials and shrubs. A basic condition for successful cultivation of grass in the garden is to take account of their environmental requirements.


Porównanie systemów standardów ochrony środowiska i mechanizmów ich działania w Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej oraz Chińskiej Republice Ludowej
Comparison of Environmental Standards Systems and Their Working Mechanism between Poland and China
Wu Yan -hong
Marcin Sobota
Xia Jian -xin


The article contains a description and comparison of the Polish and Chinese legal system of environmental standards. In each of the legal systems of environmental standards are created on many levels, starting from the constitution, by laws, regulations of the competent ministers, until the local law. However, existing solutions in China allow the creation of separate local laws including environmental standards, while at the local in Poland are formed acts which are designed to ensure the proper implementation of the specific standards created at the national level. It must be emphasized that the legal system in China, “environmental standards” are a separate class of sources of law which is not in the Polish legal system, where environmental standards are contained in acts of general application.


Korelacje ludzi i natury we współczesnych obrazach znad basenu Morza Czarnego, Śródziemnego i Bałtyckiego
Correlations of People and Nature in the Contemporary Paintings from the Basin of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Baltic
Anna Borcz


The Article Analyzes the Correlation of People and Nature Portrayed in the Contemporary Painting from the Seas of Europe: Black Sea, Mediterranean and Baltic. Painting examples show symbolically that our life is governed by similar periodicity as the world of plants and animals. And simultaneously these three worlds influence mutual and constantly on each other. A man shapes in landscape architecture the park-palace complexes such as the eighteenth-century complex Sanssouci in Germany or, Tsarskoye Selo in Russia. Their plan can inspire artists to create an abstract picture. Whereas, a top view of port, built on the Black Sea, among bays of large liman of Dniester, becomes a decorative painting. In the works of the Ukrainian artists presentation of coloring of the Crimean Peninsula refers to a variety of styles: Baroque Grand Masters of the Netherlands, the Russian marine painter Aivazovsky or French impressionists. In the paintings of the selected here Russian and Polish painters synthesis of shapes and colors brings them closer to mainstream of Fauvists and expressionism. The paper presents also a novel interpretation of the plant and the land of the Black Sea in the styling of Orthodox icons and art-deco. Mediterranean landscapes of Italy, Montenegro and Croatia are distinguished by the proximity of mountains and sea. Painting from these countries emphasizes the traditional architecture, which combined functionalism with the beauty. It paid attention to the communication with the surrounding nature.

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