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4/2008 - Zachowanie różnorodności krajobrazu / Protection of Landscape Diversity

28   Nr 4/2008, vol. 21

Zachowanie różnorodności krajobrazu
Protection of Landscape Diversity

(64,7 MB)


Zasada zrównoważonego rozwoju w architekturze krajobrazu (zagadnienia prawne)
The Principle of Balanced Development in Landscape Architecture (Legal Aspects of the Issue)
Marcin Sobota


The article contains a discussion on theoretical concepts and definitions of balanced development and landscape, occurring in the commonly obligatory legal rules The constitutional basis for landscape protection have been pointed out, with particular consideration for the concept of balanced development as a principle shaping the landscape. The author also concentrated on indicating the factors shaping landscape, based on the obligatory legal rules in the sphere of environment protection, and made an attempt at evaluating the influence of the above factors on rational shaping of landscape and mutual conditioning between the effective protection of the environment, rational landscape configuration and the principle of balanced development. The analysis conducted by the author and the interpretation of the legal rules provides for solutions accepted on the national and international levels. The author's considerations take into account law courts' decisions as well as literature and views of the doctrine in the range of the subject.

Rynki małych miast i wsi o tradycjach miejskich - wartościowe wnętrza krajobrazowe
Market Squares of Small Towns and Villages Having Urban Traditions as Valuable Landscape Interiors
Zuzanna Borcz


At Lower Silesia many small towns and villages which formerly had civic laws are to be found, but in the course of time they lost them. The considered settlements date back mostly to 13th century, they often went through severe trials, e.g. wars, fires, or floods. They obtained the civic laws as a result of a number of factors, then often they lost them, or sometimes recovered them again. The main elements of small towns are the market square and streets coming out of it. The frontages of the market square mostly have a compact building, often, even in small towns a town hall is to be found in the centre of a market square. The settlements in the piedmont terrains are especially picturesque, the market square forms there an interesting landscape interior. In the conclusion there is pointed out that systems of small towns and villages having urban traditions require a suitable space planning and a conservator's protection.

Tradycyjny krajobraz rolniczy w trakcie przemian - przyszłościowy model zrównoważonej ochrony bioróżnorodności na terenie Polski
Traditional Agricultural Landscapes in Transition - Thoughts Regarding a Future Model for Sustainable Protection of Biodiversity in Poland
Michael Link


This paper deals with the basic aspects of the far -reaching changes in the agricultural landscapes of Central Europe over the course of time, and specifically with the impact on biodiversity brought about by the transformation process after Poland became a member of the EU. The main controls on biodiversity in agricultural landscapes are the diversity of land use types (structure of agricultural land use, types of farming, boundary line density) and the diversity of sites (soil nutrient and water balance, potential yield). The agricultural landscape of Poland is characterized by a medium to high phytodiversity on huge areas. There are considerable differences in spe61 cies diversity caused by the type of land use. The basis for the political decisions and planning acts to protect biodiversity and historical landscape structures of Poland are mainly: (1) the site factors, (2) the structure of the elements of the historical agricultural landscape, (3) the intensity of land use as well as (4) the profitability of the land use types. The following principal aspects should be considered concerning the protection of biodiversity and historical landscape structures in the agricultural landscape of Poland: (1) sustainable nature and landscape conservation are only useful as well as possible within sustainable farming, (2) nature and landscape conservation services managed by farmers must be financially supported by the public administration and (3) the intensity of land use has to be related to the site factors.

Przyrodnicze aspekty lokalizacji obiektów małej retencji wodnej na przykładzie przesuszonych lasów olsowych
Natural Aspects of Location of Small Water Retention Objects, an Example of Arid Alder Forests
Piotr Krzyk


There are 31,500 golf courses around the world. Each golf object is built with stable elements which create it's construction, landscape and character, and water reservoirs are their necessary part. Water reservoirs on a golf course fulfill vital ecological, aesthetical, economical and psychological functions. Golf courses are mainly created within close range of urbanized areas or directly in the city structure. That is the reason why the functions of water reservoirs need to be considerate not only in the scale of golf courses.

Tożsamość miejsca - przykład Parku Krajobrazowego "Dolina Baryczy"
Identity of a Place - the Example of "Dolina Baryczy" Landscape Park
Beata Warczewska


In the article attention has been paid to the identity of a place understood as sentimental attachment of the inhabitants to their dwelling place, the sense of bonds and responsibility for organization, maintenance and utilization of the place. Every place has its own distinct, specific character, and is exceptional for those users who feel good there because they create the place together and are responsible for it. Attention has also been paid to transformation of spatial management and landscape, which can bring about the loss of the identity of the place, shaped throughout decades. The valuable components of the extremely precious landscape of the Barycz valley have been pointed out, and directives of shaping new building as well as modernization of the already existing one have been formulated. The research area was constituted by localities situated within the range of "Dolina Baryczy" Landscape Park.

Przywołanie zapomnianej Arkadii - ogrodów rezydencjonalnych Hrabstwa Kłodzkiego
Recalling the Forgotten Arcadia - the Residential Gardens of Kłodzko County
Mieczysław K. Leniartek


The present article attempts to reveal the meaning of the residential gardens of the former Kłodzko county, presently lost and forgotten, in order to shape their unique image. The compositional features of these gardens as well as the metaphoric and symbolic contents enclosed in them are a reflection of styles and fashions of the epochs in which they were created and later evolved. They are also an expression of individual needs, ambitions and views of the patrons as well as the architects and gardeners who created them, and also a source of inspiration for artists of different arts. Spatial features and landscape values of former garden foundations also constituted a vital motive in the process of shaping the feeling of local and regional autonomy of previous generations and they play the same role today. The natural, historical, educational and also sociological values of the gardens confirm the necessity for research on their resources, protection, revalorization or restitution, and also enriching them with new contents comprising their material and immaterial heritage.


Zwyczajne sosny
The Scots Pines
Janusz Janecki


Rozwój "zielonych dachów" na przestrzeni wieków
Development of Green Roofs in the Course of the Centuries
Ewelina Szajda


Green roofs have a long tradition worldwide and their history dates back thousands of years. The oldest and most famous green roofs were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. More recent forebears of engineered green roofs are the sod - covered homes of Northern Europe, where sod roofs and walls have been used as construction materials for hundreds of years. Green roofs serve as a type of insulation and historically have been used to insulate against both low and high temperatures. In Europe modern green roofs were developed in Switzerland in the 1960s and a few years later in Germany and have spread to many countries around the whole world. Today it is estimated that about 10% of all German roofs have been "greened".

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