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3/2008 - Woda w krajobrazie kulturowym / Water in the Cultural Landscape

AK 3-2008   Nr 3/2008, vol. 20
Water in the Cultural Landscape
Woda w krajobrazie kulturowym



Przywrócić rzekę miastu: Tarasy Odrzańskie nad Zatoką Neptuna w Głogowie
Restoring the River to the City: The Odra River Terraces at the Neptune Bay in Głogów
Justyna Zygmunt-Rubaszek
Paweł Amarowicz
Andrzej Sobolewski


A design concept of Tarasy Odrzańskie (Odra Routes) presented in the article was awarded second prize in a contest for management of the terrains near the Odra River in Neptune Bay in Głogów in May 2008. The analyze of the actual solutions was preceded by theoretical deliberation on the relation between rivers and cities which are situated in the nighbourhood of rivers. It was noticed that the degree of urbanization of river banks varies and depends on the size and character of a city, its history and also the modern needs of its inhabitants. In Głogów, the city the project was designed for, a minimal interference in the natural landscape of many places situated within the limits of the study (i.e. peninsula), leisure and recreation function were proposed, a revalorization of the port buildings in the zone of contact with the city was designed, which existed there long before the Second WorldWar, and moreover there were plans to introduce new objects which would increase the visual and functional attractiveness of the area. The terrains around Neptune bay have a chance to become a green oasis of Głogów and an interesting point on the route to the cities lying near by the Odra river.

Kopalne dęby Quercus robur z pradoliny Odry we Wrocławiu - analiza geologiczna, paleobotaniczna i radiometryczna
Fossil Oak Trees Quercus Robur from Odra Ice-marginal Valley in Wrocław - Geological, Paleo-botanic and Radiometric Analyze
Marek W. Lorenc
Andrzej Chlebicki


The geological profile of Quaternary deposits was excavated at the northern district of the city of Wrocław in an artificial ditch of about 200 m long and 6 m deep. Lower part of the profile, starting from the depth of 3,2 m below the surface down to the base of the ditch consisted of light-yellow sand with partly fragmented intercalations of plant debris (0,2 m thick) at the depth of 4,0 m. The lowermost bed of plant debris marks the same level in which numerous logs of sub-fossil oak (Quercus robur) were found. The excavations along the ditch revealed 22 such logs, the thickness of which is in rang of 0,4-1,4 m. They occurred at the depth of 3,9-5,4 m. Morphology, color and qualities of the sub-fossil wood were very good indicators of the changing conditions of the river transport and sedimentation. Among the dendrochronologically analyzed oak samples, two generations of different ages were recognized and local chronologies were produced. The first one was dendrochronologically dated against the Southern Poland oak standard to the period 1796-1526 BC. This dating is in perfect agreement with the earlier produced result of radiocarbon analysis 3180 50 BP. The second chronology (4890 60 BP and 5000& 40 BP) indicate that the oaks of that generation grown at the end of the Atlantic Period. Radiocarbon dating also enabled identification of& trunks older than 5000 BP (5580 40 BP and 5330 40 BP), as well as of an age intermediate between these both chronologies (4370 50 BP). The analyses carried out indicate that the analyzed profiles contain mostly oak trunks from the Atlantic and Subboreal periods. They enable dating of the youngest part of the alluvial series to around 1500 BC.


Peterhof koło Petersburga unikatowy zabytek pałacowych fontann i sztuki ogrodowej
Peterhof near St.-Petersburg, a Unique Monument of Palace Fountain and Garden Art 
Nikolay Dymchenko


The article is devoted to the unique masterpiece of world's landscape architecture - Peterhof (Petrodvorets) in Russia. The architectural ensemble appeared in the first quarter of the 18th century as the main summer imperial residence of Peter I. Within the present borders of Peterhof there are several ensembles of palaces and parks united with separate historical and architectural suites of the 18-20th centuries. There you can see the two parks - the Upper Garden and the Lower Garden, Seven other gardens and parks of landscape type. The unique architectural and artistic complex of palaces and parks made Peterhof world famous. The world fame of Peterhof was brought by a constellation of palaces, collections and, first of all, fountains and cascades. At present fourteen parks stretched along the shore of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic sea are opened for walks and sightseeing. The parks and buildings of Peterhof are decorated by magnificent sculptures, four cascades and 150 operating fountains. Peterhof is usually called "Capital of Fountains". Peterhof along with Versailles and other groups of palaces and parks in Europe is an example of splendor in the design of technological ideas.

Rola i kształtowanie zbiorników wodnych na polach golfowych na przykładzie 'Toya Golf & Country Club' koło Wrocławia
The Role and Shaping of Water Reservoirs on Golf Courses: Based on the Example of 'Toya Golf & Country Club' near Wrocław
Iwona Orzechowska-Szajda
Anna Cała


There are 31,500 golf courses around the world. Each golf object is built with stable elements which create it's construction, landscape and character, and water reservoirs are their necessary part. Water reservoirs on a golf course fulfill vital ecological, aesthetical, economical and psychological functions. Golf courses are mainly created within close range of urbanized areas or directly in the city structure. That is the reason why the functions of water reservoirs need to be considerate not only in the scale of golf courses.

Klonowe pieczęcie pod chlebem
Maple "Stamps" under Bread
Janusz Janecki


Kolej i rzeki - mosty w Górach Opawskich
Railways and Rivers - Bridges in Opawskie Mountains
Marek Konopka 


A bridge is an element of a landscape and needs to be analysed in relation to the surrounding environment and its users. On examining two railway bridges in Głuchołazy and Moszczanka we will see how different the impact of a bridge on a river and the surrounding landscape can be. Both bridges are similar in form but operate differently on the visual space. Both have historic, aesthetic, functional and technical values. The bridge in Głuchołazy is neutral in the panorama of the town while the bridge in Moszczanaka is a predominant feature over the valley. Yet, the location of both bridges in the landscape may be considered an advantage.

Właściwości retencyjne "zielonych dachów"
"Green Roof's" Retention Capability of Rainwater
Ewelina Szajda


Green roof's retention capability of rainwater are the basic function of green roofs. Water is stored in the substrate and then taken up by the 57 plants from where it is returned to the atmosphere through transpiration and evaporation. A green roof will have a noticeable impact on the air humidity, air quality and reflected heat in the surrounding neighbourhood. In conjunction with other green installations, green roofs can play a role in altering the climate of the city as a whole. In the 1970's scientists began to research the green roof's retention capability of rainwater with various effects. At the close of 2001, a binding regulation for the measurement of a discharge coefficient/ runoff index was developed, which is portrayed in the new edition of the FLL - Guidelines "Planning, Installation, and Maintenance of Green Roofs" of early 2002.


Szkoła w zieleni
School in Greenery
Agnieszka Lisowska


At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century experts underlined the vital meaning of light, greenery and kind of materials in equipping new school buildings. School buildings were surrounded by greenery which gave them shade and protected them from wind. Together with introducing nature as a subject into the teaching program small botanical gardens were designed near buildings. Gym classes were also very important. Sports grounds an playgrounds for smaller children became an inseparable element of schools. A well with drinking water was usually placed next to them.

Walory przyrodnicze parku przypałacowego we wsi Dłużek koło Lubska (woj. lubuskie)
Natural Value of the Palace Park in Dłużek Village near Lubsko (LubuskieProvince)
Klara Tomaszewska
Małgorzata Przybysz


Park in Dłużek, established at a turn of XVIII and XIX century, was inscribed into monuments register in 1977. Unfortunately it is not under a proper care, elements of a spatial composition are being fading away and it is more and more transforming into wood-park. In such a situation, not only trees, but herb plants as well are decorative elements. A definite majority of trees in the park are representatives of a national flora. Thirty three species of threes and bushes were found in total, including only 3 species of gymnosperm. Park in Dłużek should be included into moderately rich ones from the point of view of dendroflora. It is an old premise, so as many as 20 trees (from 4 species) could be covered with a protection as nature monuments. Relief of the ground where the park had been established is diversified. Herb plants have a huge influence on the appearance, not only in woodland part, but on clearings, in streams and ponds as well. A hundred species belonged to 34 families were fund, including some very decorative ones, like snowdrop Galanthus nivalis, wood anemone Anemone nemorosa, wood violet Viola reichenbachiana, Water Forget- -me-not Myosotis palustris, Narrow Leaf Cattail Typha angustifolia, common reed Phragmites australis. There are 4 species under a legal protection in the park, that definitely increases a natural value. The lack of funds for a restoration to an old splendour is a problem of numerous old premises. However, nothing stands on the way to design composition elements increasing decorative values.

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