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2/2008 - Udział wody w krajobrazie / Participation of Water in the Landscape

AK2-2008-cd   Nr 2/2008, vol. 19

Udział wody w krajobrazie
Participation of Water in the Landscape



Unifikacja krajobrazów miejskich. Znaczenie procesu percepcji w jakościowej ocenie przestrzeni publicznej Warszawy
The Unification of Urban Landscapes. The Importance of Perception in Quality Evaluation of the Public Space in Warsaw
Janusz Skalski


Wide varieties of travelling make possible for landscape architects to run a visual comparison of physiognomic characteristics of various cities. On that base it was possible to notice that cities became similar. The result of such unification can be among others that watching a photographic documentary from the places we visited very often, we cannot recognize what city they present. The occurrence of physiognomic unification of city landscapes is an alarming signal for town planers, architects and landscape architects. Gradually cities lose what they had most precious - their landscape identity and character. Facing this physiognomic unification, which appears to be a process difficult to suppress, it is advisable to pay a greater attention to the sound and odour sphere of cities. The city, where the attempt of perceptive noticing and description of such occurrence was made, was Warsaw. Based on repeatedly executed observations, it can already be concluded that Warsaw as a city has lost a lot of its unique landscape identity. The occurrence of perception of Warsaw unification annihilates the great financial and medial strain with which the city's authorities sought to promote the capital and its tourist values. Simultaneously for the city inhabitants it can create an unwanted phenomenon which can in future result in the diminishing of local patriotism. There is no universal way to stop that occurrence. A lot depends on perceptivity and sensibility which landscape architects should manifest and their ability to use them during designing.

Współczesne przemiany wód powierzchniowych na terenie wsi
Modern Transformations of Surface Water in the Area of a Village
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak


The water is invariably connected with village landscape. Ponds appeared not only inside villages but also on their edges. They fulfilled utilitarian function, the inhabitants used to water the cattle in them and used them in case of a fire. The neighbourhood of water-courses and also existing water reservoirs was taken by location into consideration. Sometimes new ponds were created on the base of the rivers. They were located inside, on the edge of villages and also as an inseparable element of the parks close to manors and palaces. During the last century the number of water surfaces was considerably on the decrease, however at present people started to appreciate their value again. The former utilitarian function of the retainer water surfaces changed into decorative, recreational or fishing ones. It is alarming that ponds disappear gradually from the country area. The part of the neglected ones dry up because of the lowering of the level of the underground water, but a lot of ponds disappear because of the purposeful activity of man. In the place of the covered ponds new recreational areas arise or they are designed for building areas. At the same time they small ponds are placed on private properties, which confirms the natural needs of the people to commune with water. However, we may show a lot of the interesting examples of the development of water surfaces as regards both the landscape and the use. For the inhabitants of Pietna village in Krapkowice commune the existing ponds and the river are of the main value, which is the base for the new projects exhibiting the unique character of the village.

Pasy brzegowe jako ważny element krajobrazu dolin rzecznych
Riverbanks as an Important Element of River Valleys Landscape
Alicja Krzemińska


Riverbanks play a very important role within river valleys. These stripes determine creation of buffer zones which protect river waters against polluting agents. They also form very valuable breeding places for amphibians, reptiles and other animals. Riverbank vegetation shows great diversity, which results in biodiversity of the area. The width of riverbanks is a controversial issue nowadays and their different designs depend on the way they are used. However, they should be included in spatial management plans or river restoration projects not only because of their natural assets, but also regarding their environmental importance. Riverbanks design alongside the riverbed will allow an increase in tourist capacity as well as protection of riverine areas, and will influence their landscape values improvement through increas;p.ing the habitat mosaic.


Przeobrażenia układu hydrograficznego Warty w granicach Poznania i poznańskiego obszaru metropolitalnego
Transformations of Hydrographic Shape of the Warta River within the Limits of Poznań City and Poznań Metropolitan Area
Beata Raszka


Changes to the Warta river on its Poznań section, in the historical approach, has been presented in the work. Economical circumstances supporting the change of this hydrographical set were shown and the spatial consequences of the introduced changes have been pointed out. The abandoned concept from the 19th century and the limits of works of the carried out rebuilding in the 1960s were discussed in detail. The inaccuracy of the chosen concept was stressed and the need for renaturalization of the river beds was raised, together with examples given of such actions on the area of Poland and Europe.

Zrównoważone gospodarowanie wodą - moda czy konieczność?
Sustainable Water Management - Fashion or Necessity?
Ewa Kozłowska


Despite the fact that the supply of water is renewable, the deficiency in water is deepening the world over. The problem no longer remains the concern of hot countries with a dry climate and poor in water, but more and more often huge urban agglomerations. It is the effect of incompetent water management. The solutions which are to bring balance into the water system are actions to locate and use alternative sources of water, recovering it and managing the water supply in such a manner that most of it remains in a hydrological circle. Such aims can be reached within limits of Sustainable Water Management, often also called Water Management (WM), Water Resources Management or Watershead Protection. Sustainable water management engages not only authorities and non-government organizations. It is also directed at society and calls for its support too. Acknowledging water to be a deficiency agent should promote its saving on many levels of social and economical life. Promoting watersaving technologies and creating regional water and sanitary programs especially in big urban agglomerations should serve this purpose. Balanced actions in regulating water supply in urban areas concern saving the biggest amount of drinking water. Management of rain water called Stormwater Management (SWM) or rainwater harvesting is the vital part of Water Management. Within limits of SWM such programs and strategies are used so as to gain, retention and using rain water. They include various techniques and equipment to manage rain water (rainwater harvesting techniques), combining them into one sustain able drainage system (SDS). SDS is mostly valued in urban areas. In the scale of the city actions of SWM there are among others, those directed to minimalising the threat of a flood by regaining retention and absorption areas. SDS equipment is opened and of a landscape character therefore it has a vital influence on creation urban space.

Wykorzystanie terenów zalewowych a ścieżki dydaktyczne
Floodplains Use and Didactic Trails
Magdalena Medwecka, Anna Dzikowska


River valleys are among particularly valuable areas concerning their natural, landscape and tourist assets. Inundated areas, located in the closest neighborhood of the river, might be exploited with the exclusion of water stagnation periods, and the influence of anthropopression in these changed areas is strictly related to their location. The combination of flood control, tourism and education has a different dimension in cities and in non-urbanized areas, especially polder areas. The scope of this article focuses on tourist and recreational use of such anthropogenically transformed grounds. Managed polders located within the boundaries of Grądy Odrzańskie NATURA 2000 Site, Ujście Warty National Park, Stobrawski Landscape Park and Brodnicki Landscape Park pose a tourist attraction on a regional scale. Urban inundated grounds are i.e. active and passive leisure locations for city inhabitants. This article briefly describes examples of floodplains revitalization in Kassel on Fulda, Porvoo on Porvoo as well as in Wrocław on Odra, where these areas have a big tourist-recreational potential. Inundated grounds, often unused or poorly developed, with the proper funding can turn into weekend destinations.


Wierne wodzie
Trees Faithful to Water
Janusz Janecki


Użytkowe i estetyczne walory oczyszczalni hydrofitowych
Usable and Aesthetical Amenities of Wetlands
Ewa Burszta-Adamiak, Magdalena Kęszycka, Bogumiła Ryglewska


Presently in landscape natural swamp ecosystems owing to their organic and inorganic suspension's holding capacity and biodegradability create both invaluable and unique environment. With reference to these ecosystems constructed wetlands came into being in which water with a high amount of suspensions treatment tasks are realized effectively. The constructed wetlands, grooved with properly selected plant species blend into the natural landscape. Their effectiveness, stability and naturalness mean they are more often in grace and can be perceived as an alternative to traditional water treatment systems.


Sekcja "Architectura Militaris" Studenckiego Koła Naukowego Architektury Krajobrazu Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu
Section "Architectura Militaris" of the Students Scientific Group at Landscape Architecture, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Science
Jerzy Potyrała


The section of Architectura Militaris" has existed within the limits of the Students's Scientific Group at Landscape Architecture since it's creation in 2001. This organization acts at the landscape Architecture department of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Science and it's scientific custodian is dr eng. Arch. Jerzy Potyrała. Scientific activities of this section includes problems connected with revalorization of historical fortifications landscape. And the main area of their activity are Prussia and Silesian fortresses from the 18th and 19th century. The research works, mainly, are architectonical stock taking of fortification objects, deontological tock taking of greenery in the area of a fortress geodesy measurements of earth batters. That is the reason this section closely cooperates with Students's Scientific Group of Building department and Students's Scientific Group of Geodesy department which act at our university. Field researches are carried out within the limits of the students' scientific camps and are the base to performing documentation and architectonical design concepts of revalorization of fortification buldings.

Refleksje z międzynarodowych warsztatów studenckich z zakresu architektury krajobrazu
Impressions from International Student's Workshop of Landscape Architecture
Marta Weber-Siwirska


In July 2000, a group of students from Poland, Hungary and Germany in the custody of professor Marek Siewniak and professor Gerhard Han-Herse took part in a two-week student workshop. Which was held in Dresden (the first week) and in western Germany (the other week). Students were divided into working teams. Each of them obtained its own subject of the work. One of the teams performed revalorization of the historical garden Schloss Albrechtsberg. From 1853 the castle was a residence of Prince Albrecht and his family. In 1925 the oldest son of Prince Albrecht sold the castle to the city of Dresden. Since the autumn of 1990 the City Council of Dresden has been implementing a new concept of using Castle Albrechtsberg. This concept focuses on the castle as an architectural monument with its characteristic historical and cultural charisma and the uniqueness of the entire castle estate. To re-emit the renaissance character of the place according to Bogdanowski [1999] an action was taken. First of all, a valorization based on the worth of plants (their age, retention and species) was made and then historical facts about progress phases of garden composition and its elements of small architecture were taken into account. At the end the project of revalorization was made.

Założenia parkowo-dworskie w krajobrazie kulturowym ziemi częstochowskiej
Manor-Park Foundations in the Cultural Landscape of the Częstochowa Region
Sebastian Wróblewski


In the cultural landscape of the Częstochowa region there are still noticeable, actions by the 19th and early 20th century owners of the local estates. Apart from the cemeteries, the only old tree groups in the country are former manor-parks and gardens. The influence of landowners is visible in spatial planning, farm plans, tree-lanes etc. The majority of the manor-parks were established in the 19th century. However, the best reconstructed are the changes in the history of the park in Kruszyna. This 17th century geometric park was reshaped in the centuries that followed, but traces of the old formation are still noticeable. A few large landscape-parks were formed in the 19th century. Some of them were designed by the famous green areas designers - Franciszek Szanior and Walerian Kronenberg. Nevertheless, the majority of the parks had the character of large gardens - smaller than 1 ha area. The integral parts of the park set were orchards- presently non-existent. The vital role in the composition of a manor-park was played by water. The rivers Warta and Wiercica were used in the plans of the parks. Ponds were planned not only for serving a purpose but also for aesthetic reasons. Other aspects of landscape planning were tree lanes and rows planted by the roads from manor to farms and other estates. Nowadays, progress of the degradation of the cultural landscape is ever noticeable. The majority of the manor-parks were demolished after 1945. Those parks which have survived are still neglected. Of numerous manor-ponds only few have remained. The rest were drained and the former water system was transformed. In recent years the progression of destroying tree lanes could be observed. Among the many reasons for these processes are: the lack of awareness of the cultural landscape - importance in local society and the lack of strict legal regulations to preserve local landscape.

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