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1/2008 - Zieleń towarzysząca architekturze / The Greenery Accompanying the Architecture

AK1-08   Nr 1/2008, vol. 18

Zieleń towarzysząca architekturze
The Greenery Accompanying the Architecture

str. 64


Zieleń Żoliborza Historycznego zróżnicowanie oraz potencjalne zagrożenia
Urban Greenery of Żoliborz Historyczny - Variety and Potential Threats
Dorota Kiełsznia


Warsaw's Żoliborz Historyczny comprises the area around Warsaw Citadel, where during the twentyyear Polish independence interwar period a new town-planning establishment was created; a residential district shaped on a completely new basis, different from the compact and narrow downtown. Greenery was of great importance there. Nowadays, after nearly 80 years, this greenery, as much as the building and infrastructure, creates the subtle tissue of the district, deciding about its specific character, vitalizing its area, stressing and completing the existing structures. The territory of Żoliborz Historyczny is subject to the conservator's preservation; not only the layout of the buildings, but also the greenery arrangement are protected. On the basis of the research, the following arrangements and elements creating the greenery of Żoliborz Historyczny have been distinguished: city parks, squares, small homestead gardens, superficial forestation, alleys, groups of trees, hedges and single trees.

Ewolucja miasta utrwalona w krajobrazie Bystrzycy Kłodzkiej
Evolution of a City Preserved in the Landscape of Bystrzyca Kłodzka
Mieczysław K. Leniartek


Several elements such as background (region), second plan (surrounding) and foreground (the town) can be distinguished in the landscape of an old town. Various contents: aesthetical, economical and social which create layers during historical changes and create tradition of the place, can be read through analyze of planning and structure. In the present work, in the example of Bystrzyca Klodzka, a process of changes in the cultural landscape and its following phases has been presented starting from the location period, until the present one, defining stylistic characteristics typical for each époques. The analyze of his sort allows one to define interiors and architectonical and landscape units and rules of preservation and management in their area. It has also been indicated in the present work that the study of changes in ancient structures and their dynamics allow definition of the phases in a city life cycle: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation stagnation and fall or renewal. The identification of the changes phase and knowledge of the rules in a city life cycle allow one to diagnose its future fate and defining the intervention methods in a complex historical environment. They also allow one to avoid false function and space decisions, such as industrial mono-culture development in place of simultaneously carried out various pro-development strategies: residential, industrial, tourist and environmental.

Zieleń zabytkowego ogrodu przy dawnej willi Teicherta w Legnicy
The Monumental Garden Greenery of the Former Teichert's House in Legnica
Ewa Lenard


A great advantage of old gardens, especially those at splendid villas, was undoubtedly their large surface, which made it possible to establish gardens composed not only of small trees but also big ones. Such a garden was created at the Teichert's house in the 1st half of the 20th century. Its additional decorative feature was the formal composition with a ground terrace and a vista from a glade. This original design with the precious multispecies tree-stand, still exists today.

Walory przyrodnicze, stan obecny i zagrożenia wybranych alei gminy Lubin
Nature Value, Present State and Threats of Chosen Alleys from Lubin Region
Klara Tomaszewska
Adam Kopcza


A lot of beautiful lanes can be found in Lubin commune in Lower Silesia. Six of them, selected in the way that enables showing the trees differentiation resulting from localization, species composition and age, were analyzed. Quercus petrea, Populus x canadensis, Quercus rubra, Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastaneum, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos, Salix alba, Prunus avium and Alnus glutinosa were used for planting. Trees were set in one-species alleys, multi-species alleys with mixed individuals of particular species, and also in a more decorative manner, so that each of the species created a separate espalier. The most interesting one in respect of the arrangement and adaptation for performer function was a three-part lane in Liściec, regarding its decorative values - two-species (chestnut-maple) stand densely situated along the road from Chojnów to Karczowiska. Just there Acer platanoides and Aesculus hippocastaneum create separate espaliers on both sides of the road. The preservation state of plants is not the same. Cherry (in Chróstnik) and willow (in Bukowno) lines are slowly disappearing from the agricultural landscape, which is most upsetting. Well-kept lanes, where all gaps caused by falling trees are refilled up-to-date, are met relatively rare; the trees planted along the estate road to a palace in Krzeczyn Mały are such a praiseworthy exception. Not the health status of trees, but the fact that they are growing too close to roadways is the reason for anxiety as to the future of some lanes. Trees were planted along the roads which looked different than nowadays, and fitted for different road traffic. Old trees are especially amazing. For that reason, many trees that reached dimensions qualifying them as nature monuments can be found there. It is worth trying to give them legal protection, and especially care about those species that are more and more seldom found by the roads, such as cherry and willow.

Przyrodnicze uwarunkowania zagospodarowania doliny Warty w Poznaniu
Nature Conditions of Warta Valley Management in Poznań
Beata Raszka


Conditions of Warta Valley management resulting from the presence of protected areas have been defined in the article. They were characterized in the set of conservatoire and system protection. It was stated that for the appropriate prognosis and spatial development planning (functional and spatial frame), it is necessary to run an analyze of the relation: conditions of the environment- social needs- economical development. It is necessary to introduce into town planning practice the entire (holistic), nature style of thinking based on theoretical and methodical environment and natural resources researches.

Rola zieleni towarzyszącej budynkom inwentarskim
The Function of Greens Accompanying the Livestock Buildings
Małgorzata Drożdż-Szczybura


The greens accompanying the farm buildings, in the main, perform the function of protection, but it is necessary to consider their usability (production) and decorative (social and cultural) function. They protect the buildings and its environs against winds, noise, fires, excessive insolation, snow and dust. The trees and bushes form the most efficient acoustic protection. It is necessary to form protective zones around the animal farms (large livestock farms) with a large percentage of greens. The width of the protective zones is determined individually depending on the farm size, livestock, building orientation and the frequency of oriented winds. On ecological farms there is almost always a diversified cropped area belonging to the farm. The type of animal raised decides on cropland character, type and system. On a tourism farm the predominated greens depend primarily on the role played by animals and livestock building. The aesthetic values of the greens - Their diversity and decorative forms and shapes as well as structure, design, facing and colours become landscape elements along with accompanying buildings.

Zieleń towarzysząca dolnośląskim założeniom pałacowo-folwarcznym
Greenery Accompanying Lower Silesia Palace - Grange Set
Renata Gubańska


Garden, palace or palace-garden sets which bordered directly with palace grange sets were most of all the place for a walk and rest of the inhabitants of mansions. In inventoried objects we can distinguish two basic spatial compositions. The first characterizes by geometry, regularity of sets and often axis. The second one characterizes by freedom which refers to natural landscapes. Former gardens and parks which have accompanied palace-grange sets since the beginning of their existence, similarly to granges, influenced and shaped the cultural landscape of the place where they were created. In every historical period, various styles in composition existed both in garden and palace ones. They often created the only high greenery point in the neighborhood. And sometimes they were directly connected to the areas of woods lying near by. It is necessary to remember that some landowners apart from gardens and parks were planting trees at road sides. Present old alleys, and sometimes hedges were created in such a way. In the modern rural village set both former palace-garden sets as well as the above mentioned alleys are the only forms or organized greenery. It is a pity that they appear to have remained without care and attention. The only thing we can do is hope that together with the rise of social conscience and rationalization of legal regulations, their situation will decisively improve.

Krótka charakterystyka klasycznych ogrodów chińskich
Brief Analysis of Classical Chinese Garden
Zhou Zhanxi


The classical Chinese garden has a long historical standing. Some conceptions can inspire a modern landscape architect. Especially the unification of human beings and universe bring about profound impacts to landscape architecture. Chinese gardens are opposite of geometric and emphasize the natural environment. According to the ownership, Classical Chinese garden is divided into three parts: a royal garden, a private garden and a temple garden. Except the temple gardens, the other two types are not open to the public. Royal gardens belong to the royalty. They always have large areas. In order to show the power of the royalty, the gardens are full of grandeur in the main part. They are high-colored and look splendid with yellow glazed tiles and red walls. Compare to the royal garden, private gardens are small and exquisite. Most of them are located in the south of China. The owners are always scholars or former politicians. They built their own gardens, which are simple but elegant, in order to enjoy their picture and poetry in a beautiful scenery. The Chinese word for landscape, "Shan Shui", means literally "mountains and water" and a common phrase for making a garden, again translated literally, is "digging ponds and piling mountains." Although the architectural composition of the main part in a royal garden is regular or symmetrical, the remaining area is comely. When visitors are in the garden, they feel as if were surrounded by the nature.

Drzewo rodzinne
Familiar tree
Janusz Janecki

Drzewa na terenach zurbanizowanych w obliczu silnych wiatrów
Urban Area Trees in the Face of Strong Winds
Marta Weber-Siwirska
Marek Liszewski


During the last several years, as a consequence of the greenhouse effect, an increasing number of storms was observed in Poland. Storms are often categorized as catastrophic. This article demonstrates the main factors leading to serious damage of trees. Breaking and falling down trees or branches causes significant property damages and may contribute to deaths. It would be possible to prevent some accidents if there were any diagnostic methods that could predict imminent fracture of trees. In many cases competent care is enough, especially in canopy pruning and planting planning. To reach this goal, it is necessary to raise public awareness in this field.

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