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4/2007 - Krajobraz rzeźbiony barwą i światłem / Landscape Shaped with Colour and Light

AK 4-2007   Nr 4/2007, vol. 17

Krajobraz rzeźbiony barwą i światłem
Landscape Shaped with Colour and Light



Odczuwanie palety barw czyli słońce włada krajobrazem
Palette of Colours the Sun Rules the Landscape
Włodzimierz Dreszer


Synthesis stimulates the mind, make us reflect. We see less but we notice more and feel more. The limited range of viewing makes our imagination work and allows us to see inside ourselves. Inaccessible spaces for the eye fill thoughts, senses and emotions. The source of light in landscape is one of the most important elements of a designer’s workshop. Similarly like in theatrical and film plays, light in the hands of an artist becomes a tool which releases deep emotions, hardships and experiences. A man – the child of earth is telling about his world. He tells, what is a part of his feelings and experiences among winding paths to perfection of spirit and mind.

Spojrzenie na barwę, światło i ruch we współczesnym malarstwie krajobrazu
A View of Colour, Light and Movement in Modern Landscape Painting
Anna Borcz


The article includes reflections on the subject of modern landscape painting. By the chosen examples of the author’s own paintings and photographs, the author investigates the means which artists use to depict landscape. It is always their own, artistic interpretation. Colour sets, size and temperature of various spots serve to build up an atmosphere and “colour energies”. Contrast or assimilation of the nature elements or characters painted on canvas can be a result of spontaneous intuition of the author or a decision on the concept of the work taken previously. A concept not limited by realistic local colour. But it is light which decides which colour we see. It is a director of the artistic spectacle. Sometimes it appears in a focussed form on an object, and sometimes it is diluted over a bigger area. It sculptures plants in the painting, terrain shape, or man-made objects. It mirrors their reflection on the water surface and mutually casts shadows. Due to operating with light and shape, an artist achieves an illusion of movement in the painting. The movement, which in the real world is observed on the basis of differences in short periods of time, is very difficult to show on a flat surface of canvas or paper. However, through intellectual building of the full form of a painting and using the above mentioned artistic forms of expression which are presented in the article, the viewer can read the movement, emotions, mood and even changeability of a landscape.

Pejzaż jako synteza miejsca w odczuciu artysty malarza
Landscape as the synthesis of a place in the feelings of a painter
Adam Wojciech Bagiński


For a landscapist the main theme is nature in all its forms and occurrences. Woods, lakes and rocks are stable motifs ; changeable atmospheric occurrences, such as clouds, fog, sunrise and sunset, cloudy and sunny days, appear simultaneously. Similarly my own experiences and ordeals are present in my creations. Close contact with nature refreshes the imagination and realizes emotional and spontaneous painting to express noticed occurrences and forms. I look for appropriate painting space and form. The main target is to achieve the energetic power of a painting. Cooperation of instinct, intuition and intellect continues until the end of the work. In emotions of work, it seems to me that a painting is finished, but often it occurs that it is not true. After a few days it often happens that some fragments need to be changed and sometimes on this basis a new painting is created, although the first one is not without meaning because the layers of colours create surprising qualities. The form comes from intuition, but in the layout of a painting construction, it is intellectually accepted, that is why it is equally important for me to lay the paint from motion and differing painting material. That gives me a lively and dynamic form.

Przestrzeń zgeometryzowana krajobrazu
Geometrized Space of the Landscape
Piotr Winskowski


The paper discusses methods of interpretation of landscape in painting, by means of geometric abstraction, and the enrichment of the seeing and understanding of space. The stained glass Great Pastoral Scene in the Winter School of Agriculture in Drachten, Holland (1921-1922), by Theo van Doesburg is here described. This is an unusual work for the avant garde, by the evident relation to the recent past of art (the picture The Sower, 1889-1890, by van Gogh), and by the expression of the universalistic tendencies of De Stijl by relation to the traditional motif of the seasonal changes of nature. There is also shown the impact of the idea of this artwork, which is taken from the surrounding architectural and urban space. The second area of interest is the cycle of oil paintings Sky and Earth by Leszek Misiak, created in the times when the ideas of abstract art have passed, nevertheless abstract style still marks the art, the things of everyday life, and through this it still determines our ways of seeing the contemporary world, dominating conventions. The creative use of these conventions, enriching it by the individually shaped nets of meanings - this is still potentially a fruitful area for creativity and innovations. These impulses and experiences could be also used effectively in the designing and shaping of the landscape.


Światło jako element integrujący kompozycję krajobrazu
The Light as en Element of Integration of Landscape Composition
Leszek Maluga


The light determines the perception of the space. The lights and the shadows belong to the plastic structure of three-dimensional composition. The type of lighting – daylight or artificial light – could determine the solution of compositional order. The correct lighting integrates the spatial structure. The analysis of lighting in natural and cultural landscapes allows formulation of proposals for designers.

Studenckie projekty iluminacji wybranych budynków w Głogowie
Students’ Projects of Illumination of the Chosen Buildings in Głogów
Jerzy Potyrała
Aleksandra Brodziak


Illumination of architectonical objects is a fascinating assignment for a designer but also a very difficult and responsible one. Artificial light can create space with completely new and surprising spatial values, and emotions accompanying its reception are much stronger than during daytime. The colour of spot lights can saturate the colour of an elevation or it can change it a great deal. How does one accent a fragment of a building so its roof or breaks of wings do not disappear ? When to use a spot light and when a flood of light, what intensity to use? The students in the fourth year of architecture and landscape at Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Science tried to solve those and similar problems while elaborating illumination conceptions for a few buildings of public utility in Głogów, the assignment of city authorities. Six objects belong to that group: the Town Hall, the Collegiate Church, St. Nicolas Church, the Church of Corpus Christi, the castle of Princes of Głogów and the court building which are representative buildings of the city and which are those which survived battles during World War II The projects were carried out under the direction of Dr eng arch Jerzy Potyrała during exercises from “Maintenance and Revalorization” in the 2007 summer semester. The students gained new experiences and they learned not only to use theoretical projects, but also to talk with a real investor in contact with a real object in the terrain. Their work has been appreciated and projects are already in realization.

Barwa a architektura – percepcja barwy, elementy kompozycji koloru
Colour and Architecture – Colour Perception, Details of Colour Composition
Małgorzata Bąkowska


Visual perception of architecture and town-planning is achieved by light and colour. On the other hand – light and colour are a vital formal medium in architectonical and townplanning design. What is more, light and colour can create the specific atmosphere and climate of the place (genius loci) in design, indicate the purpose of the place, its character or style. The article presents the elements of colour theory, problems of colouristic compositions and practical use. Such problems as: colour perception, emotional influence, symbols of colours and colour contrasts have been elaborated in the article. A supplement to the article is rich in illustration with commentaries.


Kolor jako czynnik kształtujący przestrzeń wiejską Ziemi Kłodzkiej
Colour as a Factor Shaping the Rural Space of Kłodzko Land
Anna Cała


The article deals with research on the influence of native rock material – sandstone, on the cultural form of the landscape of villages in Lower Silesia. Red sandstone, thanks to its university, found in the considered area – Kłodzko region, is widely used, it is present not only in buildings, details or sculpture, but due to the complex geological structure of this region it is also present in the landscape in a natural form and is without doubt its inseparable part. The intensive red colour of the stone decisively distincts this region of Poland neighbour region and gives it a specific character.


Za światłem na granicy dwóch światów we wnętrzach barokowych kościołów śląskich
Following the Light – at the Border of Two Worlds, in Baroque Interiors of Silesian Churches
Bogna Ludwig


Interiors of baroque temples influence visitors in a particular, ambiguous way, bringing aesthetical sensations, but also cause philosophical and religious reflections. It is a result of shaping those spaces by the use of various and complicated architectonical methods, which were mastered in the time of the baroque. Light arrangement was one of the most important elements shaping sacral interiors. A baroque church became a connecting point of reality and supernatural. The difference between sacrum and profanum obliterates in its interior. The real space continued into “unearthly” one created by the methods of illusion. Real and introduced light connected together describe this penetration of two worlds, earth and heaven. Hidden sources of light cooperated in creation of illusion and real space, illuminate the assemble of prayers by the light coming from the firmament. Real light had to play the part of supernatural light. The knowledge of methods of shaping the space and arrangement of lighting in interiors in a significant way enriched the architect’s possibilities. It allowed him to obtain defined aesthetical and program targets. The baroque period was the time when art rose to its highest limits. Therefore, it is important, while studying those historical times, to bring closer the defined means and techniques in view of their application nowadays.

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