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2/2007 - Krajobraz górski / Mountain Landscape

kgorski   Nr 2/2007, vol. 15

Krajobraz górski
Mountain Landscape



Dynamika krajobrazu górskiego
Dynamics of a Mountain Landscape
Marek Staffa


A mountain landscape is characterized by a highest dynamics resulting from a diversified shaping, natural values, changeable conditions and individual characterological features of the observer. The phenomenon of space-time continuum and the velocity of the changes occurring while moving about in the area are of a great significance for the dynamics of the mountain landscape. These transformations of the mountain landscape find their reflection,and influence numerous forms of life and culture. For a long time it has been observed in art, especially in painting and literature, which shaped the conventional canons of beauty and the manners of environment perception. In the mountains they created fashion for particular threads or forms of folklore. The dynamics of the mountain landscape is influenced by existence of very strong aspects of the 'third dimension' i.e. drops expressing themselves in daring forms of shape. The dynamics is stressed by contemporary phenomena connected with more and more rapid transformations resulting from economic and social processes. Unfortunately, these changes are of decidedly destructive character and, by introducing for example contemporary, very aggressive dominants, often bring about irremediable loss in the natural elements and spectacular values of mountain landscapes.

Krajobraz wyludnionej wsi przygranicznej w Górach Złotych
The Landscape of a Desolate Border Village in the Złote Mountains
Jerzy Oleszek


The topic of our consideration is the landscape of some border villages located in the Złote Mountains, in the eastern part of the region of Kłodzko. The chosen objects are desolate border villages, whose current state is not brought about by consequences of decrease in population, but the effect of displacement, resulting from political decisions made in the year 1945. Later attempts aiming at colonization were actions of short-lived duration, having no substantial importance. The research proved that a loss of balance, and sometimes decline in historically shaped balance occurred there, resulting from the weak, constructive activity of man. Its present effect is both a monothematic landscape, being the effect of natural processes domination (village Karpno), and also - still! - clear forms of arrangement of elements of cultural environment, combined with preservation of the specific form of the place canon - village Wrzosówka. The final problem, remaining for the reader to consider, is the following question: will the preservation of Wrzosówka,as a localization of recreational houses and sports infrastructure, allow to preserve, or maybe even enrich, the existing values of the cultural landscape?

Krajobraz kulturowy Beskidu Żywieckiego. Zarys problematyki geograficznej
Cultural Landscape of Beskid Żywiecki Mountains. Outline of Geographic Problems
Urszula Myga-Piątek


The article discusses the process of shaping the cultural landscape in the area of the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains. The landscape of the discussed area developed in an evolutionary way and is an evidence of co-existence and interaction of nature and man. The ways of adaptation of man to the natural conditions in the Beskid Żywiecki, i.e. to the geological basis, relief, climate, surface waters, soil, natural plant covering, have already been discussed. The forms of this adaptation, and subsequently the succeeding phases of anthropogenic interference result in the shaping of some specific forms of the area development. A brief outline of the history of colonization and the stagesof utilization of the Beskid Żywiecki space are presented on the ground of the physiographic outline. The text also indicates a reverse process, i.e. the influence of man on the environment and the mountain landscape. Thus the article presents the changes in the natural components of the natural space and its effects they exert on the landscape. In the conclusion the author attempts to refer to the future state of space organization and the necessity of integrated protection.


Obiekty turystyczne i rekreacyjne w krajobrazie gór polskich
Tourist and Recreational Objects in the Landscape of the Polish Mountains
Grażyna Balińska


Architecture serving the tourist purpose consists of numerous objects of diverse functions, such as hotels, refuges, pensions, sanatoria, restaurants, congress halls, garages, camping sites, railway stations and many others. They greatly influence the landscape. In the report several groups of solutions have been presented, which interact with the mountain landscape. 1. Objects faithful to tradition of indigenous materials (stone and wooden buildings with simple forms, i.e. refuges and mountain doses). 2. Objects faithful to the traditions of regional ornamentation: wooden hotels and pensions, with long galleries, balconies, with characteristic wooden details and the construction specific for the region. 3. Hotels, holiday houses, recreational and skiing objects creating alpine agglomerations, destructively affecting the mountainous landscape. Modern ambitious accomplishments, consistent with high-tech directions, made of glass and steel - alpine meteorological stations, cable-railway stations with unconventional, interesting architecture.

Architektura krajobrazu wysokogórskiego - rozwój dziejowy i próba prognozy
Landscape Architecture in High Mountains - Historical Development and Foresight
Dariusz Kronowski


Landscape architecture in high mountains is a specific and extraordinary attractive field of scientific research. As well it is a very practical discipline, bringing much utility, because of a worldwide boom of highland tourism and sports. New mountain regions will be open for a mass users, who need buildings and facilities in order to survive, to be safe, and to be comfortable. Evolution of landscape architecture in high mountains has been stimulated by several completely different factors. One of them was just exploring - the basic kind of activity in high mountains - invented, organized and realized by elitist strong people - aristocrats and scientist. Then politics, had to move some interesting streams of development, because of military constructions, sometimes in a very wild, risky places. Finally culture, which is most important in the aspect of aesthetics, technical quality, and good function based on humanist requirements. Conquering landscape in high mountains - step by step, was first of all guided by the pioneers, heroic travellers, adventure men and ladies, showing how to do it. This patterns became more and more popular, next and next achievements were stronger and highly fascinating. So media took over, reporting and promoting high mountains as the greatest satisfaction, fun, way of relaxing, or a way to live. Finally architecture came with a help for people in an extreme landscape conditions. Its evolution - from simple pasture huts, through tourist/climbers shelters, until modern contemporary sophisticated high-tech stations looking somewhere as science-fiction creations, but often as the awful containers thrown into high mountain landscape. The future of landscape architecture in high mountains, is widely open. On one hand - it can be most sophisticated, fascinating creation of marvellous objects composed in a virginal nature. But on the other hand - it can easily be the bad and sad triumph of a primitive boxes production, spoiling the most exotic beauty spots. Landscape architects are necessary in order to avoid this last eventuality.

Twierdza Srebrna Góra, jej losy zapisane w krajobrazie
Srebrna Góra Fortress, its Lot Written in the Landscape
Jerzy Potyrała


Srebrna Góra fortress, bearing the name of a historic monument, has been effectively guarded within the confines of resiliently active Cultural Park. It constitutes an exceptional relic of fortification art on the European scale, and can play a leading role in re-composition of the landscape of Bardzkie and Sowie Mountains gorge. In order to make it a proper spatial dominant, it must be exposed from among the overgrowing it greenery. The Fortress Cultural Park is an implement which makes such an activity possible.However, a question arises: in what way should the trees be cut down in order to obtain the best composition, reconciling simultaneously the historical- architectonic values of the whole complex with ecology and protection of the natural environment existing there? The spatial image of the fortress underwent considerable changes during its 230 year existence. They were closely connected with the history of the stronghold, i.e. the evolution of the first-class military object in the 18th century into a prison, an engineer polygon, a tourist object and finally a forgotten ruin in the second part of the 20th century. A model of the contemporary panorama of the fortress and town seen from the side of Brudzew was taken as a basis for the analysis. While comparing the archival photographic materials, subsequent models of similar panoramic views from different historical periods were made. Srebrna Góra fortress has a chance to be the most attractive tourist fortress in Pradziad Euroregion, without being competitive for the fortresses in Klodzko and Nysa. On the contrary, the rank of the Euroregion and its meaning in European tourism will be strengthened. The form of exposing of Srebrna Góra fortress in the landscape becomes, in this context, of great importance.

Kotły wirowe w krajobrazie dolin rzecznych zachodniej Hiszpanii
Potholes in the Landscape of Western Spain River Valleys
Marek W. Lorenc


Spectacular bed forms, eroded by flood flows, are a feature of the bare rock terraces and channels of some rivers cut into granitic rock in the districts of Salamanca, Cceras and Badajoz, W Spain. The bed forms comprise a range of pothole types which individually represent various stages in the evolution of mature potholes. Pothole evolution reflects the hydrodynamics of the erosion, by high velocity flood flows, of bedrock. They evolve in time and in concert with the evolution of the landscape. Initial shallow depressions deepen gradually into cylindrical forms as vertical erosion increases. As time passes, lateral erosion increases and leads to wider cylindrical forms which evolve into asymmetrical and bulbous forms. Second-order scouring leads to the development of minor decorative potholes, tunnels and niche caves in the large, mature potholes. Data on pothole geometry should complement the findings of other geomorphological studies on individual rivers and on regions. The pattern of pothole maturity in a particular river valley can be used as a measure of the "erosionalmaturity" of the valley in the following way. All other things being equal, a pothole pattern involving many immature forms should characterize "young" stages in the erosion of a bedrock surface and, conversely, a preponderance of mature pothole forms should be a feature of "older" stages. Knowing the proportions of the various pothole types in the three areas studied, this simple rule allows the following conclusions. (a) The Salor River valley represents a "young" erosional stage; immature pothole forms predominate and the largest potholes are sited close to the present river channel. (b) The present valley of the Tormes River displays a similar relatively "young" evolutionary stage. The positioning of the large mature potholes above the present river level suggests that the water level in this river was, for a considerable time in the past, higher than it is today. (c) The Jerte River valley represents, essentially, an "old" evolutionary stage overprinted by "younger" erosional event(s). However, in this case, the local geological structure - a series of parallel faults - played an important role in the development of some large sumps (F-type potholes) at the bases of waterfalls. In the evolutionary history of a river channel, pothole formation is rightly recognized as a most potent method of down cutting. At any given moment, however, they are a morphological detail. Other than recognizing the abrasion they reflect, they may tend to be ignored. However, their geometries may allow a point in the history of a river, i.e., its present maturity, to be precisely defined. In addition, the spatial locations of potholes in river valleys reveal past and seasonal water levels. This study in W Spain suggests that a more complete and quantitative knowledge of pothole development in the rivers of the region could profitably complement and refine the findings of other methods of geomorphological measurement.

Analiza wnętrza krajobrazowego na terenie nabrzeżnych fortyfikacji grupy warownej Barbariga w Chorwacji
Analysis of Landscape Interior on the Site of Riparian Fortifications of Fortress Complex Barbariga in Croatia

Michał Kuriata
Łukasz Pardela


The fortress landscape of the Croatian location of Barbariga, being the object of our research is a culture landscape, resultant in the consequence of transformation of a natural seashore into a complex of military defensive works. It has several specific features, which were taken into consideration while creating a simplified graphic method of an open landscape analysis, whose main element of composition is fortress greenery and the fortifications in the form of well preserved, Austrian military buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th century. The conclusions which arise from the conducted analyses concern the problem of reproduction of historical vegetation concealing the military objects, which have lost their original functions. Inconsiderate reconstruction of the greenery may cause the loss of the landscape values.

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