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3-4/2004 -Odnowa wsi / Village Renewal

AK34 2004   Nr 3-4/2004, vol. 9

Odnowa wsi
Village Renewal



Studzianna-Poświętne, tradycje kulturowe czynnikiem kształtującym zrównoważony rozwój wsi
Studzianna-Poświętne, the Cultural Traditions as a Factor of the Sustainable Rural Development
Anna Różańska
Małgorzata Milecka


The creation of Sanctuarium Studzannae is connected with the cult of a miraculous painting of the Holy family and is closely linked with the history of Philippine priests, who were almost from the beginning guardians of the holy painting and curators of the Sanctuary. From the preserved historical transmissions it is known that at the end of 1664 there already existed a cult of Studzianna painting, which has at its source the so called miraculous adventure of a mason called Wojciech Lenartowicz, who fell gravely ill while repairing a stove. Then the Holy Mary from the picture manifested herself to the sickly stove fitter, promising him a return to health in exchange for special reverence to her image. She asked him to build a shrine, also presaging widening of her cult in this place. After this event, numerous groups of pilgrims started to pour into Studzianna, paying homage to the Holy Mary in the painting which was situated in thecourt chapel. By special decree on the 16th March 1671 the church declared the painting of the Holy family miraculous, allowing it public cult. In 1968 the painting of the Holy Family was capped with Papal crowns, and in 1973 the temple in Studzianna received the title of basilica minor. Studzianna and Poświętne are two places situated at Opoczynska grounds, north of Opoczna, among cultivated fields separated by lines of midfield stand density and surrounded by woods on the River Pilica. Administrative relics are situated in Poświętne settlement but the name of the neighborhood village Studzinna is linked with it. That is why both names are usually given.The sanctuary existing for over 300 years has influenced the shaping and development of Studzinna and Poświętne towns. The specifics of the cult determined functional - spatial set of this area which is also perfectly visible today. The pilgrimage movement and actions by the Philippine fathers are still factors which continue to create the development of Studzianna and Poświętne.Actions which tended to sustainable development of Studzianna - Poświętne, should nowadays be proceeded bi-directionally. The first direction is broadening the Philippine priests actions for fuller use of pilgrimage back-up and also enrichment and diversity of tourist, educational and cognitive activities. The second direction is protective actions which aim at preventing degradation of the antique cultural landscape of Studzianny-Poświętne.

Krajobraz zabudowy mieszkaniowej w podmiejskich obszarach Warszawy (na przykładzie wybranych gmin)
Landscape of Residential Settlement in the Suburban Areas of Warsaw (on the Example of Selected Communes)
Hanka Zaniewska
Agata Pawłat-Zawrzykraj
Konrad Podawca


In the previous decade, dwelling- houses development took place mainly in suburbs of cities, especially the large ones. Considering its capital and metropolitan functions, Warsaw is a particular example of the process. Problems related to expansion of new settlements, which can be observed in the areas of Warsaw suburban communes, refer to processes such as: transformation of functions and character of rural housing, conflicts arising from location of new dwellings in the neighbourhood of preserved areas, functional and infrastructure connections with a city and spatial order of the new housing. The problems are presented on the example of two suburban Warsaw communes, Łomianki and Michałowice.

Przemiany wsi unijnej na przykładzie Francji, Niemiec, Holandii i Wielkiej Brytanii
Transformation in Union Villages with Examples from France, Germany, Holland and Great Britain

Eleonora Gonda-Soroczyńska


It is not easy to elaborate a clear, unequivocal, precise, good, nation-wide conception of policy towards Polish villages and agriculture. It is difficult to mark out appropriate, certain direction of changes in villages which would satisfy all interested parties in this problem, especially farmers, breeders, industry acting for agriculture, entrepreneurs, comestible consumers, ecologists, politicians, etc. Transformations in Polish villages both in the way agricultural economies function and within the limits of aggregate rural existence are necessary. That is why I believe that so as not to make mistakes, which occurred in other union countries ie. Holland, Germany, France, and Great Britain it is essential to look acutely at these countries, especially at all transformations, renewal of village which functioned there, analyse them thoroughly and compare them to Polish conditions. However the objective evaluation of those transformations is not easy, especially that those countries underwent periods of rises and falls during the last few dozen years. They searched for ways out of various crisis. Poland, having the opportunity of benefiting from experiences and effects of those Union members should draw the appropriate conclusions, chose the best options, heeding the influence of changes to environment in Polish villages, village nature protection, preserving the typical rural landscape, cultural traditions, social integration, preventing village inhabitants from migration to cities, development of ecological and biodynamic agriculture, etc. All changes in Polish villages should be directed at ecology and protection of rural areas.

Współczesne kierunki przekształceń krajobrazu terenów wiejskich Mazowsza
Nowadays Transformations of the Mazovia's Rural Landscape

Beata Fortuna-Antoszkiewicz
Kinga Kimic


Nowadays the traditional rural landscape of Mazovia created for many ages is changed as the effect of following social and economic transformation. We observe it's degradation in relation to many aspects. The negative changes included: destruction of spatial order connected with the free choice of architecture; the conveyance of urban arduous productive and service functions to villages connected with creation of new works and warehouses on fortuitous places; the disturbance of surroundings' perception caused by the chaos of ground technical arrangements and chaos of information made by ubiquitous aggressive elements of advertising located along the roads; the disturbance of surroundings and the nature manifested by "wild" dumping grounds of rugs; irreversible processesof destroying the sculpture of earth made by wasteful exploitation of scientific resources connected with forming of grovel-pits, sand-pits and excavations; reduction of agricultural landscape to poverty connected with the renunciation of agriculture and formation of waste lands; elimination of typical forms and structures of plants created by people - wayside and field afforestation, reduction of trees from farmyards and cemeteries, resignation of flower front-gardens, common replace native plants by foreign species; the commonness in using of mass-produced garden decorative elements and small architecture; insufficient protection of historical buildings, etc. All of that processes have destructive nature in meaning of superiority of spatial order's preservation and the respect of still existing scientific and cultural matter. If they stay imperceptibly and if we don't stop that occurrences they will threaten the irrevocable loss of lots of valuable and cultivated for many years typical elements of the Mazovia's landscape which decided about its cultural values (the urban structure of villages; historical forms of architecture - traditional rustic buildings with front-gardens, mansion-houses, palaces and churches; elements of agricultural culture - fields crossed by afforestation of pollard willows, old linden access roads, trees planted in relation with houses, churches and cemeteries, wayside crosses and wayside shrines). The rural Mazovia's landscape rich of historical elements and developed with the harmony of tradition is our cultural heritage. That's why the economic progress of that region should concern the process of sensible maintenance of beauty and harmonious landscape with the idea of equable development.

Wartości zabytkowych alei dawnych założeń podworskich na wybranych przykładach z okolic Łomży
Values of Monumental Alleys Remaining After Old Manors. Chosen Examples from Vicinity of Łomza City

Jan Łukaszkiewicz


Avenues for a long time have been one of the fundamental components of the country landscape. Straight roads connecting manors and farms on Polish territory, were lined with trees. The avenue would also serve as a composition and sight axis. They would also connect the residential areas of parks and gardens with other dominant objects in the surrounding landscape, such as palaces, manors, farms etc. Common lime (Tilia cordata) is a native species to Poland. Therefore it was often used as an avenue tree in different regions of our country. Lime avenues are numerous in Podlasie and some other provinces (which used to be a part of Łomża province). Four lime avenues in Łomża vicinity were chosen to show the actual meaning of relic avenues in the contemporary agricultural landscape, and to formulate some conclusions concerning the possibilities of their protection and survival. Growing antropopressure has caused the vicinity of the relic avenues to undergo some unfavorable changes. Roads which had once been used only by horse drawn transport, became busy communication tracks. Avenue trees remaining in such conditions without necessary care had no chance of survival. Nowadays old avenues do not serve the roles for which they were originally meant. Nevertheless they are of great value even now but for other reasons. They represent exceptional landscape qualities, and in many cases (e.g. the avenue in Puchały) are the only remaining relics of ancient manors. It can be said that old avenues just as other relics bridge the past and the present together. They are our cultural and natural heritage. We should endeavour to keep and conserve the traditional virtues of our home landscape, from which old avenues are inseparable.

Walory krajobrazu kulturowego wsi położonych w bezpośrednim sąsiedztwie dużych aglomeracji miejskich na przykładzie wsi Leśno Górne i miasta Szczecina. Szanse i zagrożenia
Values of Country Cultural Landscape Situated Nearby Cities on the Example of Leśno Górne and City of Szczecin

Magdalena Rzeszotarska


Sustainable development of rural areas situated nearby towns causes set-back of cultural degradation processes on these areas, their activation and harmonious cultivation of natural and landscape values. Neighbourhood of a "big brother" has huge infuence on condition of small villages. Particularly situated village has chances of economic development, but at the same time, it could lose it's homely appearance and cultural heritage. Country historical values, it's architecture and natural worth should be protected and appropriately used according to improvement of quality of inhabitants life.

Miasta ogrody dawniej i dziś
Cities - gardens in the Past and Present

Barbara Sierecka-Nowakowska


In the 20s and 30s of the previous century a trend to found recreation towns existed. These were separated settlement units around big cities. Clearly precised functioning- spatial rules for those sets created harmonious settlement units in the suburban zone of huge centres. At that time in the area of Łodź several of such places were found, on all main transport routes which led out of the city. The urbanization processes of the last few dozen years dimmed the boundary of the city, suburban zone and separate settlement units. City - gardens as former settlement units, surrounded by others, separate and accidental sets of summer houses, mansions and other types of buildings were lost in structures and connections.

Parki wiejskie jako forma edukacji przyrodniczo-krajobrazowej na przykładzie gminy Bystrzyca Kłodzka
The Village Parks as a Form of Natural-Landscape Education for Example Bystrzyca Kłodzka District

Anna Gierula
Magdalena Szymura
Karol Wolski


Parks are a specific form of area management, built up with natural and artist-architecture elements. They are related territorially with thet place where villagers live and work; herefore they should realize a social and scientific function. However, as tourist objects, they should carry out cultural, didactic, ecological, sanitary and aesthetic functions. Most of the parks were formed in the 18th century in place of older ensembles, sometimes as a result of their transformations. The appearance of parks is a result of economical development of society and changes in aesthetic taste, e.g. in Gorzow park, where the garden parterres were transformed into flower meadows and glades. English style fashion introduces the idea of landscape style and park. Signs of that style can be found in the park ensembles in question, where the beauty of natural forms like solitary trees e.g. European ash in nodding variety, a weeping willow which solitarily grows over a pond, or oak and beech which grow in groups. Irregularities in the terrain, such as naturally shaped waterfronts and ponds. Avenues and paths are forming arches, avoiding symmetry, e.g. on Park Mountain in Międzygorze. Rural parks, the younger ones, which were created in the 19th century had a typical, naturalistic character. They are the most valuable ones from the naturalists point of view, however poor in relation to architecture and composition. They form structural arrangements, similar to forests and have a heterogeneous composition of trees and scrub species. Trees which grow there are usually well adapted to regional soil conditions, they have a shapely form, high height and are characterized by high development dynamics. The presented results apply to the valuation of conservation of composition arrangement and floristic composition of rural parks in Bystrzyca Kłodzka district. Projects of two cycling paths based on the landscape value of the area and the attractiveness of catalogued objects. There exist eighty tress and scrubs taxa, within which sixteen are gymnosperms and sixty four are angiosperms, forty five taxa (56% of the whole investigated plants) belong to native species.

Roślinność rodzima i obca w krajobrazie wsi dolnośląskiej
Native and Foreign Vegetation in the Landscape of a Lower Silesian Village

Aleksandra Lis


While weighing up the problems of criteria when selecting trees and bushes, which would create a native component of the rural landscape, we have taken into consideration the meaning of particular species in landscape cultural tradition, the degree of their historical preservation (the length of period of their use) in the mentioned area and the value which those species have in the consciousness of the local society. The background to this study is the cultural, natural and economical predispositions of Lower Silesia.

Zintegrowany system zarządzania zasobami przestrzeni przyrodniczej, jako metoda odnowy wsi Integrated System of Natura Space Resources Menagment as a Metod of Rural Revitalization
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski
Radosław Domagała


West Polesie Biosphere Reserve was established in April 2002 in an area of 139 000 ha in Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lake District in Lublin Voivodeship. Poleski National Park is in the centre of the Reserve, in its western part - the Landscape Park of Łęczyńskie Lake District, and in the east - Sobibor Landscape Park. The main characteristic feature of the Reserve is the fine-mosaic ecological structure of the landscape with numerous lakes, peat bogs, meadows and forests in depressions and patches of fields on higlands of limestone substratum. From the 1950's to the 1980's the area of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lake District was subjected to largescale draining. 61.2 per cent of all marshy grounds were drained. Seven out of sixty- eight lakes have dried up. From the mid-70's the remaining lakes of the Disctrict have been affected by rapidly spreading recreational development of the land. By the end of the 20th century the majority of the lakes made available for recreation had had their tourist carrying capacity exceeded, and, in several cases, it was over fourfold. To prevent degradation of nature, tourist and aesthetic values of the region a number of protective measures have been taken. Initially, in the 60's and 70's, they took the form of conventional local conservation (creation of nature reserves), then, in the 80's, nearly the whole area of Łęczyńsko Włodawskie Lake District was recognised as a part of the regional "Ecological System of Protected Areas". Granting the status of Biosphere Reserves to the whole region by UNESCO has started a new chapter in natural resources management. It is oriented towards revival of degraded areas with simultaneous revitalization of rural settlement, as well as development of agricultural production in harmony with nature. Natural resources management system of the Biosphere Reserve involves four interrelated subsystems: diagnostic, planning, decision-making and control. Both the cooperation of nature protection service with local governments and a holistic approach to all of the components of the landscape are of special importance for these actions. This paper presents the chosen methods and techniques of natural space resources management of the Reserve, which constitute the above mentioned system. Furthermore, it describes the effects of their application.

Rola krajobrazu w przeobrażeniach oblicza współczesnej wsi
Rolle der Landschaft im Werdegang des Antlitzes eines modernen Dorfes
Tatjana Kireewa

Oceny oddziaływania na środowisko jako narzędzie ochrony i kształtowania krajobrazu
Environmental Assessment as Instrument of Landscaping

Luiza Tyszko


Evaluation of influencing the environment (OOS) is a new element, introduced by legal regulations into practice of spatial planning. They constitute a complex, multi-stage process of striking conscious decision involving planned investment decisions. The process ranges from a period of planning and projecting of the investment; through it's realization, to post-realization environment monitoring. In OOS procedure we can discriminate 3 main stages: prestudy, study and post-study. Valuations of influence are undoubtedly a very important instrument which regulates problems with environment quality management, including landscape. A systemic approach carried out by OOS provided appropriate valuations of endangerment to landscape, which is our common welfare, a value presented to man by nature.

Możliwości rozwoju wsi polskiej
Development Opportunities of the Polish Countryside

Sylwia Staszewska
Ewa Kacprzak

Magdalena Szczęsna


The systemic transformation of Poland's entire economy and its accession to the European Union have given the countryside new opportunities for development. In the recent years, proponents of the conception of multi-functional development of rural areas have grown in numbers. Non-agricultural businesses set up by country people allow them a fuller use of the existing resources, e.g. a surplus of labour or premises. A change of economic activity to obtain alternative sources of income is often the only way out of an economic impasse for the rural population. Naturally, a common barrier to establishing a non-farming business is the lack of financial means. Non-agricultural activity is known to diversify the functional structure of an area and improve the living conditions of its inhabitants. A dense network, diversity and good location of the elements of technical, social, cultural and tourist development (i.e., infrastructure) provide the necessary skeleton for the multi-functional development of the rural economy. However, the chances of introducing changes are not equal for everyone. There are a number of factors controlling the growth of the Polish countryside, including the geographical location, natural conditions, and spatial development. Poland's accession to the European Union has opened up new prospects, especially before the frontier rural areas in the west of the country. Of some importance for the activation of a place is its close location relative to a major settlement unit, although it may also pose a threat in terms of the form, way and intensity of spatial development. Another factor determining the chances of and barriers to the growth of a unit is infrastructure, since it provides a basis for any economic activity and is responsible for spatial differences in economic growth. The natural conditions of a substantial part of rural areas are favourable to the development of agrotourism, which may help improve the living conditions of villagers and the quality of the local landscape. The distribution of agrotourist farms is closely connected with the natural and cultural attractions of the given area. Tourists prefer regions with a diversified relief, a high percentage of woodiness, and the occurrence of water bodies. It should be kept in mind, however, that an uncontrolled development of tourist traffic may lead to a degradation of the natural environment. Naturally, agro-tourism helps to stimulate the rural economy and allows villagers to augment their incomes. It should be kept in mind, however, that only some farmers can engage in agrotourist activity. Hence, even rapid development of agro-tourism will not solve all the rural problems that Poland faces today.

Poszukiwanie nowej jakości życia w wyborze miejsca zamieszkania
The Research of the Now Quality of Live in the Choice of the Location

Krystyna Paprzyca

Użyteczne nieużytki czyli wpływ terenów nie wykorzystywanych rolniczo na krajobraz i życie wsi
Useful Wastelands or Influence of the Areas, Which are not Used for Agricultural Purposes, on the Landscape and Village Life

Agnieszka Gawłowska


A modern village is a place of many contrasts and conflicts. Apart from multiple social problems, like unemployment and dearth, there still accrue others which are connected with the change of village character following the entrance of Poland to the European Union. Frustration, which is created through the conflict between traditional understanding of the world by inhabitants of villages and requirements of the modern economy, often surpasses many people. To limit those disadvantageous occurrences which happen nowadays in so many regions, it is worth surveying closely the terrains of our villages, especially those which are often considered to be the least valuable. It is there where the unused potential of possibilities of development exists for many communes. Wastelands, because they are in question, can become a source of income and benefits, less calculable but also valuable. Agritourism is only one of the most popular examples in which to use wastelands. Others, less popular will also be described in the following article.

Tożsamość przedmieść w kształtowaniu ekologicznego charakteru siedlisk ludzkich
The Identity of City Suburbs in Creating The Ecological Character of Human Habitations

Magdalena Jagiełło-Kowalczyk


The problem of pock moving out finny city centers, which is first of all due to overpopulation and pollution1 leads to actions aiming at finding alternative areas for the development olthc housing environment. The uncontrolled extension of cities has a vital influence over both the housing environment and economics, as it causes the rise of the costs of building houses and roads, stocking up on water, the sewage system, etc. It is also often the case that, as a result of the extension of cities, vast areas of most fertile grounds are unnecessarily and thoughtlessly wasted. That is why it is absolutely essential to take up well - thought - out steps to make use of the potential of city suburbs as housing areas. These are only possible when all the people who have an impact cii city extension, such as town planners, architects, ecologists, sociologists and inhabitants themselves, stay in close cooperation. it was no later than during the industrial Revolution that "the suburb" became home for the bourgeoisie, who wanted to escape from the hardships of city life. Nowadays the suburb, as a consciously chosen housing area, changes the shape of the modern housing organism. It offers more space and a much better quality of the environment. The countries where the ecological consciousness reached a high level have already made efforts towards using suburbs as most convenient locations for ecological housing estates. What seems to be a perfect example of such estates is an ecological housing estate called Nieuwland in Amersfoort (Netherlands). The reason why a description of the mentioned above estate is included in the following publication is to explain the way of thinking which led to locating the estate in the suburbs and present the factors which determinate its ecological character.

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