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1/2007 - Drzewo - żywy elelment przestrzeni / A Tree - Live Element of Space

drzewo   Nr 1/2007, vol.14

Drzewo - żywy elelment przestrzeni
A Tree - Live Element of Space



Drzewa w krajobrazie Polski
The Trees in the Landscape of Poland
Janusz Janecki


 "... a solitary field pear tree stares in amazement at the breath of our earth." There are serious difficulties in introducing successful actions, influencing physionimical expression of the landscape, especially in the so -called production zone, however traditionally tolerated remains of woods, like for instance a pear tree in the field, visually dominate the geometrical chess board of fields. Such occurrence is worth applying in order to create the open landscape, performing formerly necessary research, for example using the straight lines method.

Dąb drzewo kultowe
Oak as a Cult Tree

Zuzanna Borcz


The oak has played a vital part in legends and beliefs from ancient times. As a symbol of strength and long life it was identified with gods which were worshiped. Several examples supporting the idea of the cult and history of well known oaks, based on chronicles and spoken tales,were included in the article. Attention has been paid to the role of oak trees connected with beliefs and modern religion, as well as the part the oak has played as a valuable element of the landscape.

Tradycja i renesans palmy (cz. 1)
Tradition and Revival of the Palm (Part 1)

Monika Czechowicz


Palm trees experience their revival. They are becoming commonly used in interior arrangements, recreational management of space in town, the example of which may be the city beaches by the Spree in Berlin. Palm trees are also symbolic of martyrdom, victory and eternal life. The present article presents in its first part a short review of chosen kinds and types of palms with brief morphological characteristics. The possibilities of making use of these comely trees in landscape architecture have been included in the review. The symbol of the palm has also been applied in design and architectural constructions through palmettoes, ornaments or palm tree vaulting. The following text is an attempt to draw attention to the prevailing "palm fashion".


Panoramy zespołów urbanistycznych aglomeracji wałbrzyskiej. Rola zieleni
Panoramas of Town-Planning Sets in Wałbrzych Agglomeration. Role of Greenery
Bogna Ludwig


This work is dedicated to chosen panoramas of town-planning sets in Wałbrzych agglomeration. From the old town, through industrial town and Stary Zdrój, the estates of citypark type on the hills of Gedymin, to chaotically developed new sets It allows us to appreciate the values of Wałbrzych landscape and learn from existing problems and threats on their example. Wałbrzych districts lie in two valleys and are surrounded by mountain ranges which are separated by lower hills. Such a topographical setting allows the creation of panoramas of town-planning sets both from the mountains which surround the valleys and from the hills. The most valuable of the panoramas of Wałbrzych agglomeration is the panorama of the old town. The oldest one dates from 1734 and shows the city from the east. As it is extremely valuable,it requires protection, appropriate exposition and clearing of the tall trees and bushes. The panorama from the hills over Julia shaft which opens in a south-east direction, is a middle distance frame and includes two sets - the old town and a coke plant and building estate close to Bolesław Chrobry shaft. The hill called Parkowa Góra divides Pełcznica valley where the old town is situated, to the valley where Stary Zdrój is. A trekking path along Lotnicza Street is the place for most attractive observation of Stary Zdrój and its district - a housing estate on the slope of Gedymina hill. From the slope, north-east slant of Chełmica, we can see Opoka district,north of which there are two estates of post-war blocks - Podzamcze and Piaskowa Góra. The panorama shows damage which has occurred to Walbrzych agglomeration landscape. Introducing blocks with flat roofs and a groupof skyscrapers for hitherto existing set completely scattered the composition.

Trudne dziedzictwo - cmentarze poniemieckie w krajobrazie kulturowym Dolnego Śląska
Dissonant Heritage - Former German Cemeteries in the Lower Silesia Cultural Landscape
Dagmara Chylińska


Former German cemeteries (civil and military) are one of the components of the Lower Silesia cultural landscape. As a result of territorial changes of Poland after the Second World War, not only a certain geographical area has been attached to Poland, but also many products of the German material culture, including cemeteries. They belong to the so-called 'dissonant heritage'. Despite the fact that many decades have passed since the end of the WW II, various matters connected with them, like uncertain future, their place and functions in contemporary cultural landscape, protection of the premises and ways of conduction, require quick solutions. Spontaneous destruction of German cemeteries in post-war times was directly connected with the WW II trauma which has decided on the negative and hostile perception of any product of German material culture. German cemetery liquidation and so-called 'censorship of graves' were manifestations of a political process called 'Repolonization' of Lower Silesia. The uncertain political situation of Lower Silesia after the end of the WW II, devaluation of death and lack of lasting connections between the space and new local communities were conducive to destructive activities. Confrontation with different cultural traditions and patterns preserved in the landscape brought about a sense of strangeness, lack of concern with the leftover German heritage and the need of "getting used to" this cultural landscape. Nowadays the biggest problems facing German cemeteries in Lower Silesia are vandalism and lack of social and administrative supervision. Destructive activities, which have taken place in German cemeteries, are diverse with regards to the extent of intensity and kinds of results - there is total liquidation, partial liquidation, devastation, partial adaptation and total adaptation. Concern for preservation of the Lower Silesian German civil cemeteries is dictated by a need to protect their values, especially landscape ones, thus it shouldn't arouse any resentment. Cemeteries of foreign nations testify to the former multicultural nature of the region, which had been influencing its physiognomy for centuries and decided on a great diversity and abundance of its material and spiritual heritage. The contemporary functions of former cemeteries, which lost their original burial use, should be in creating new public and individual spaces of penetration intended for recreational and tourist activities. Thus, the protection of German cemeteries in the Lower Silesia cultural landscape may consist of incorporating them into a 'living' cultural environment (through fulfilling a useful social function, not necessarily utilitarian), avoiding their spatial and functional exclusion, featuring mainly their universal aesthetic, symbolic and landscape values.


Park Botaniczny w Ciechanowie (projekt i stan współczesny)
The Botanical Park in Ciechanów (Design and Current Condition)

Jarosław Witold Janecki
Janusz Janecki


In 1998 we developed design documentation of the Coniferous Botanical Park in Ciechanów, a town 100 km north-east of Warsaw. The projects were realized in the same year the concept was realized and within its framework 1000 trees and bushes representing 140 taxons were planted. After 8 years since the arrangements were completed,the Park presents very well, it also serves its educational purpose successfully,and at the same time it has become an integral aesthetic element of the city.


Problemy identyfikacji standardów jakości krajobrazu: przegląd doświadczeń międzynarodowych i pierwsze badania polskie
The Problems of Identification of Landscape Quality Objectives: the Review of International Experience and the First Polish Researches

Barbara Sowińska
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski


The European Landscape Convention (EKK), signed by The Council of Europe on October 20, 2000 obliges the members of The European Union to identify their own landscapes throughout their territories, to analyse their characteristic features which are considered the most important to be preserved and to examine the society’s views on the landscape quality objectives. Many countries, including Poland, have already begun their research in this field. The international meeting of the workshops for the implememtation of the European Landscape Convention is held every year. This article presents the review of the contemporary methods of landscape quality measures in the European Union. The first research in this field conducted in Poland took place in The Roztocze – Solska Forest Biosphere Reserve. The collected experiences made the authors to formulate the basic methodology of the identification of landscape quality objectives.


Recenzja książki, A. Böhm: Planowanie przestrzenne dla architektów krajobrazu
The Review of the Book, A. Böhm: Planowanie przestrzenne dla architektów krajobrazu

Wojciech Kosiński


Readers who are interested in relationships between physical/spatial planning and landscape architecture, received the outstanding edition dealing with it. The author is prof. Aleksander Böhm, the founder and leader of Landscape Architecture Division, in the Faculty of Architecture, Cracow University of Technology. The book is formally designated to be a manual for students in technical universities. But the top intellectual level, exceptional attractiveness of narration, and broad horizon of authors mission – create the publication to be enthusiastically accepted by all the persons, taking seriously into consideration, problems of a living space. The book, structured in eleven chapters – the introductory and then ten problematic – deals both with international and Polish problems. On the other hand, it is constructed chronologically; but surely with many exciting digressions, throwing more light into the main problem described in certain chapter. There are progressions and degradations described, that concern planning and landscape architecture, through continents, countries – and, centuries or decades. The author shows his immense knowledge and passion towards spatial phenomena, in global and local dimensions. The author’s work is both, theoretical dissertations, as well this same time – an empirical panorama of phenomena. All the examples described, he shows parallel on numerous samples, on illustrations: photographs, plans, projects and sketches. The very mission of author is harmonious landscape, as a result of serious approach in order to create it. He shows how it had been done long time ago, as well as it is possible today. He describes brilliant critical history of planning and landscape creation, pointing short-time mistakes, and the long-time or over-time values. Those last ones, he wishes to be implemented today, possibly in Poland too; in spite of difficulties concerning immature law, disputable planners’ workshop, low social consciousness, and against relativity and moral chaos in postmodern culture.

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