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1-2/2005 - Architektura krajobrazu wiejskiego Odnowa wsi / Landscape Architecture of Villages Village Renewal

AK12 2005   Nr 1-2/2005, vol. 10

Architektura krajobrazu wiejskiego
Odnowa wsi

Landscape Architecture of Villages
Village Renewal



Zmiany w krajobrazie wsi na przełomie XX i XXI wieku
Changes in the Rural Landscape at the Turn of the 20th and 21st Century

Zuzanna Borcz


For many years or even centuries the traditional rural landscape was idealized by painters, landscape artists, extolled by poets and novelists, as a quiet area, full of green and close to nature. Villages change in respect of buildings, social-economical relations and landscape. Currently villages are multifunctional and only part of their inhabitants deal with agriculture. Particularly submissive to non-agricultural function development are villages situated in the suburban zone, where single-family building is developing dynamically. Taking into consideration the subject of the rural landscape it is necessary to realize the variety of functions which the buildings are to meet and special management of village areas. The agricultural landscape undergoes changes, which are influenced by intensifying mechanization, chemicalization and changes in the structure of farming. Conclusions, defining priorities of actions of local authorities, planners and dwellers in respect to the landscape are preserving the landscape of a village as an entirety, more detailed plans of special management, preservation and revitalization of green areas, preservation and management of surface water, popularizing regulations of regional architecture and landscape preservation among inhabitants of villages, social and educational organizations and local authorities.

Odnowa wsi jako środowisko zachowania i zgodnego z dziedzictwem kulturowym kształtowania krajobrazu wiejskiego
Village Renewal as an Environment of Prevention and Pliant to Cultural Heritage in Shaping the Rural Landscape

Ryszard Wilczyński


The renewal of the village is an innovational concept of development of rural areas which occurred in German speaking countries at the turn of 70s and 80s as a reaction to the then increasing crisis in rural areas. The basis for this current of rural area development is belief that modernization of villages according to urban pattern and agriculture based on industrial production methods do not solve village problems but on the contrary deepen them. There is a future in front of it if its specific is considered in the approach to the development. It determines competition growth and successful chances in market conditions. Renewal of the village became a way of transforming an agricultural village into a post-agricultural one, with full preservation and development of its current values. The village remained itself keeping its attractiveness, avoiding the "pseudo-city" syndrome which touched Polish villages in the way which makes achieving conditions of stable development difficult. In Poland renewal of villages is known thanks to the Opole program of Village Renewal (accessed by more than 300 soletstvoes), which was initiated in 1997. It is the biggest and the longest active regional program of local societies activation. As the first in the country it introduced the rule of grounding village development on a strategy drawn up by soletstvo (village renewal program). As a result of promotional actions of the region the expression of renewal became known throughout the country. It is possible to define a model of the progress of the village renewal process - from the initiating moment to the state when the village gains a stable bases of its development. Four phases where allocated: initial, starting, advanced and panoptical. Each of them has a characteristic, separate set of characteristics (states), each following phase is more capacious as to the matter and complexity of achievable states, and is, at the same time, longer and requiring exponential increase in costs. For village societies, the presented model has a value of general instruction on how to lead the village renewal in a most efficient way and in accordance with the logic of the process and what quality targets should be taken in the said moment of village renewal process advancement.

Przemiany wizerunku wsi opolskiej pod wpływem odnowy wsi
Changes to Opole Village's Image Influenced by Village Renewal

Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak


Revitalization of rural areas, their efficient functioning together with preserving specific "country" character is a value appreciated in European Union countries. Very useful in those domains is the program of Village Renewal, which, through positive thinking of the parts participating in it, brings calculable effects such as increase in social and local activity, improvement of standard and quality of lives of village inhabitants, together with coincident preservation of the identity of the place, tradition and the landscape surrounding it. Opole villages have a very important characteristic, mostly they are of compact development which did not relent to dispersal during the centuries as it occurred in Lesser Poland area. Most of the elaborated villages did not submit to intensive development, hence well preserved, clear special sets and often undisturbed panoramas and entrances to the villages. Additional value is a characteristic yard development with well preserved architectonical details. It can constitute a base to determine directives constituting a base for protection of the identity of the place. The assignment of inhabitants is creating a new image of the village while saving those traditional elements.

Metoda opracowania planu rozwoju miejscowości
A Method of Elaboration of Town Development Plan

Zbigniew Kuriata


Awaking local activity, directed at nature protection of widely understood cultural landscape and tradition, solidifies the processes of rebuilding of the village identity. The people who inhabit specific areas define and interpret them shaping the space surrounding them. Limitation of the space on one hand and a huge and rapid involvement of man in its creation on the other hand, forces one to discriminate the identity of the place and time to assign the interaction and influence of the changes which came into being on the landscape surrounding it. Currently, at the Agricultural Academy in Wrocław, based on many years of research a scheme, of progress and educational range of individual studies edited for villages has been elaborated, tending to the widest description of existing state and elicitation of its character. Based on the data gathered in the area, information gained in the commune office and directed from the villageinhabitants during organized village meetings, data bases are created which describe particular issues. Analyses of gathered data are run with the use of computer methods and the elaboration itself is in a form of boards and description (catalogue), conferred by commune offices to individual villages. Considering landscape, its perception and in consequence interpretation, should define a set of appropriate directions and types of actions within the limits of protectionand shaping the former and newidentity.

Przyszłość architektury ludowej czyli krótka rozprawa między rolnikiem, architektem a konserwatorem
A Farmer, an Architect and a Conservator in a Short Debate on Future of Folk Architecture
Krystyna Pawłowska


Regarding founations, membership in the EU is a great opportunity for Polish rural areas. What does it mean so far as architecture and cultural landscape are concerned? Viewpoints on the issue can fundamentally differ.
1. Why Polish people neglect Polish folk architecture and would like to replace it with the other, preferably urban or foreign ones?
2. Why people from the cities have an interest in primitive, half ruined buildings and in some cases their demolition is being forbidden?
3. Why design proposals and regulations introduced in local spatial development plans encouraging to build new housing according to traditional patterns are not accepted by village dwellers?
These tree questions summarise a controversy on the future of rural architecture in dispute among monument conservators, the inhabitants and architects. Type of the edifice, which conquered today's landscape is a house of overdone solidity, built in brick and finished according to social aspirations of the owner and building supermarkets aesthetics. Contemporary adaptations of old buildings and patterns appeal more to urban dwellers visiting villages at the weekends than to their inhabitants. Moreover, using old patterns bears often resemblance to rather foreign traditions.
Taking advantage from the European rural areas renewal programme, specific features of Polish villages should be exposed; for this purpose are given below:
1. Changing form of communication between professionals and village inhabitants. Public participation and dialogue are more effective than administrative obligation and sermonizing.
2. Agrotourism in its folk and ecological aspect is an opportunity.
3. Good practice popularization regarding contemporary design based on tradition and their implementation by formulating guidelines in local plans of spatial development.
4. Preparing and promoting an offer of building materials, which would contribute to the continuity of building tradition.

Tożsamość, trwałość, rozwój; Ochrona krajobrazu kulturowego w projektach odnowy wsi
Identity, Durability, Development; Cultural Landscape Protection in Projects of Village Renewal
Elżbieta Raszeja


When facing growing endangerment of cultural heritage and village landscape caused by modern tendencies and development processes, it is necessary to encircle with protection not only particular objects but also all spatial sets and landscape forms. These problems should be included into village renewal projects, and individual solutions have to be preceded by comprehensive examinations. In modern programs of village renewal the need to rebuild spatial identity, based on durable values preserved in the cultural landscape of a village, is underlined. The ability to read these values and to respect them is connected with it. The article presents three projects connected with widely understood village renewal. One of them is an Irish project, ranging from researches to records of cultural heritage in the Belcoo region, carried out mutually by scientists, artists and village inhabitants. Within its limits commodious archival material was gathered and the history of this region which had been recorded in archeological, architectonical and spatial heritage was recreated. The next example originates from the region of Sławno in Middle Pomerania, where complex researches (archeological, architectonical, scenic, biological) on cultural landscape have been run in the River Wieprza valley over last few years. It is a specific terrain due to its natural values, and also the stage of preservation of cultural landscape resources. It is characterized by cultural apposition - Slavic origin, medieval settlements based on German law and German influence in 19th and 20th century village building. The region of Nowy Tomyśl in Great Poland is an example of cultural landscape, created by colonization of 18th century Dutch settlers. In the place of stumped forest this homogeneous landscape structure was created which has lasted in an almost unchanged form until today. The research run at Pomerania and in Great Poland included identifica ion of cultural landscape resources, choice and character of the elements defining its specification, evaluation of the stage of preservation of characteristics and traditional forms and the study of landscape perception.

Możliwości rewitalizacji wiejskich osiedli w ramach programu odnowy wsi w Słowacji
Possibilities of Rural Settlements Restoration in the Programme of the Village Renewal in Slovakia

Anna Krsáková


Na Słowacji program odnowy wsi jest bardzo znany, popularny i jest jednym z narzędzi przyczyniających się do rozwoju terenów wiejskich. Bazuje on na stronie materialnej i duchowej życia na wsi. Punktem startowym programu jest wzrost aktywności mieszkańców – na poziomie indywidualnym, jak również społecznym. Głównym celem programu odnowy wsi jest zachowanie wsi i jej charakteru z jednoczesnym podniesieniem standardu i ochroną cech szczególnych oraz tożsamości. Na polu środowiska materialnego program jest szczególnie skierowany na planowanie i rozwiązania architektoniczne z poszanowaniem zaniedbanych, niedocenianych starych domów, czy całych kompleksów przestrzeni publicznej. Do przeprowadzania analiz i planów rozwoju wsi i środowiska w programie odnowy wsi używa się wielu interaktywnych metod i form opracowań przy współudziale jak największej części społeczeństwa i ekspertów. Przy kreowaniu nowej architektury ważne jest aby odpowiednio wkomponować ją w otoczenie przy użyciu tradycyjnych detali i lokalnego materiału budowlanego.

Ocena jakości krajobrazu w planowaniu przestrzennym
Esthetic Quality of Landscape Space and its Estimation in Muncipal Territorial Planing

Aija Ziemelniece


Jednym z ważniejszych priorytetów we współczesnym planowaniu przestrzennym jest kreowanie architektury z uwzględnieniem ochrony środowiska naturalnego. Dziedzictwo historyczne i cywilizacyjne ma odzwierciedlenie w środowisku jako regionalizm oraz kultura całego narodu. Nie tylko oddzielnie postrzegane miejsca, ale również otoczenie determinuje odbiór krajobrazu w całości, zarówno środowiska miejskiego jak i wiejskiego. Wszystkie formy przestrzenne oraz środowisko powiązane są z sobą w nierozerwalny związek. Rozwój regionu Zemgale jest związany z procesami integracyjnymi na świecie. Jej terytorium obejmują takie projekty jak VIA Baltica, VIA Hanza z powodu trasy tranzytowej do Rosji. Przyczynia się to do rozwoju infrastruktury ale pociąga za sobą jednocześnie szereg zagrożeń dla środowiska naturalnego i krajobrazu.

Rozważania nad problemami infrastruktury w rewitalizacji wsi podlaskiej
Remarks on Problems of Infrastructure in Revitalization of Villages in Podlasie

Witold Czarnecki


The article describes the infrastructure state in villages situated in the area of the so called the Eastern Wall. By mutual agreement "the Eastern Wall" is a border area, east of Białystok and runs south, along the border of the country. This area is a border region of the former Polish Republic Boundary, and definite Boundary of interwar Poland. In those days this area was described as "Poland B", backward, cut off from the world. The village did not posses any technical infrastructure at all. It did not have electricity, sanitary facilities but did have dismal roads - mostly dirt tracks and often, on wetlands, made with wooden deals. Currently villages posses electricity lines, the telecommunication system has been developed, and mobile telephony provides the possibility of common communication. The water mains network is developed irregularly, the situation with the sewer network is worse, but roads are mostly good. It is possible to state then that within the range of infrastructurethe needs of revitalization do not exist, simply, further development of this domain is needed.The problem of revitalization of Podlaskie villages, including "the Eastern Wall" without a doubt occursin domains of: culture, service and trade, which is socio-economical infrastructure. The future of this area will probably be tourism. Mainly it will be horseback, cycling and trekking tourism, and of course by car, but also resident tourism such as agri-tourism, especially in wood areas and at the lagoon. And in this particular area I can see the necessity for reviving native regional culture and the whole infrastructure and services connected with it.

Koncepcja wsi tematycznej a problemy ochrony krajobrazu kulturowego na przykładzie Starej Wsi koło Przedborza
Theme Village Concept and Problems of Cultural Landscape Protection for Instance Stara Wieś Near Przedbórz

Beata J. Gawryszewska
Krzysztof Herman


The text connects problems of village renewal, especially a new approach for development of the countryside - a conception of the "thematic village" and need for protection of cultural landscape. In the landscape of Stara Wieś near Przybórz a newly found Japanese sportsand culture center will be a strong spatial and cubature accent. Also, it will have a significant influence on existing cultural and social values. This investment will become a differing element for the village. On such a base a thematic village can be created. Social participation takes a key role in it's correct functioning - due to which the local population will identify with the "theme" of their village. Stress has also been laid in this work on the estimation of the influence of this investment on changes in spatial order and forming a new spirit of place (genius loci). Recapitulation leads to the conclusion, in which the concept of a "thematic village" has been systemized. A "Thematic village" can also function, when differing elements (just like in Stara Wieś) are introduced artificially, in the form of a new and significant investment.

"Dom Warmiński" - budowanie tożsamości regionalnej Warmii
"Warmian House" - Building of Regional Identity of a Warmia
Wanda Łaguna
Agnieszka Jaszczak

Marian Juszczyński


The imagination of Warmia as an attractive tourism region was dominated by popularity of Mazury. This is the reason why the tourism movement and tourism potential on the domestic and international market isn't used. Also competitiveness and activity of the investment, especially in rural areas. The goal should be based on the contemporary reasoning of regionalism, including the regional identity of Warmia, as an element of the universum, the European area of history, culture and nature. Basing strategy of the Warmian Huose Program is creating a good image in the frame of revitalization of the regional identity. Introduction to the Warmian House Program projects, which consist of native, Warmian tourist project, will be motivation to develop rural tourism enterprise. This project will be created in different areas:
A. Cultural and natural heritage of region
B. Public tourism infrastructure (routes and tourism attractions)
C. Tourism enterprise D. Promotion of the region and the Warmian House Program.


Świetlica wiejska niezbędnym elementem krajobrazu wiejskiego
The Country Common Room the Indispensable Element of Country's Scenery

Bogusław Szuba


The article represents the method of realization of objects which can be used as country common rooms, from utilization of universally accessible, cheap renewable materials (clay, straw, stone e.t.c.) Both, the technology of realization of these objects as well as simplicity of its construction have to lead to wider facilities of this type of building - particular for the less well-off community of the village. The country common rooms, entirely raised from natural materials, can express the integrative needs of countrymen and can stand the durable element of country scenery.

Edukacja architektoniczna dla potrzeb wsi - retrospektywa i dzisiejsze potrzeby
Architectonic Education for the Needs of a Village - Retrospective and Current Needs

Miriam Wiśniewska


Settlement landscape shaping on a rural area is a complex assignment,long-lasting process which requires multidiscipline in theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge in the range of architecture, special planning, architecture, ecology, sociology and other technical domains. The current elaboration of the image of a Polish village does not fill one with optimism, and such a state is the result of generally known historical, political and socio-economical reasons. Events occurring in the last 15 years have caused the necessity for reform of the agricultural system and reconstruction and renewing of the countenance of a Polish village by means of modification and deep, structural transformations. Decisions by the government and political realm are needed to carry out this aim and also a professional team who will lead these transformations in the right direction. The way architectonical education was carried out during various historical stages, national threats and constrictions in the example of the Department of Architecture of Warsaw Polytechnic, and the current state of the department and the direction of the education of the architects and planners, shows the period of the last few decades of the Department of Villages Architecture and Planning functioning which is celebrating its 60th anniversary. The period of the crisis in 1989 and a change to the political system resulted in the need for restructuring of many social and economical domains, including restructuring of agriculture and settlements. Unfortunately those changes had a negative impact on educational programs at architecture departments not only in Warsaw, and the problem of villages underwent substantial limitations. Lack of a complex view in the management of rural areas concludes on one hand from imperfect legislative regulations, on the other hand from insufficient education and the catastrophic lack of educated planner's cadre in rural communes. The fact that the manager of an architecture and building section is a professional architect is rare. Designing architectonical, tenement, economical and servicing objects in most cases lies in the hands of building technicians or building engineers. Thus educating a professional cadre which will care for renewing the countenance of the Polish village and modern, cultural landscape is a priority assignment.

Zasady kształtowania przestrzeni wiejskich - rozważania o wartościach wymiernych i kulturowych
The Rules of Creating Rural Spaces - Measurable and Cultural Values

Aldona Kożan
Krzysztof Balcerek


The traditional form of rural urbanization is a result of social, cultural, economic factors and natural contitions. Nowadays, changes of these forms transform the village. It looses settlement individuality and its functions become unified. The study deals with a problem, which we can put into questions: what composes a character of rural urbanization, what kind of forms have influence on a perception of the space, how do present obligatory planning rules rise its quality, how to develop forms and rurles of creating rural area? To find answers to these questions the study includes analysises of 226 local plans of the spatial management, that were made for communities near Wrocław. Two of them were distinquished. First describes settlements, that concern rules of creating urbanization and area management. Second analysis shows a process of replacing various settlements by legal regulations which are not an effective instrument in keeping law. During analyzing we can see, that there are some values in the project development, which are important elements for the spatial order. For example: of a place/form: originality, individuality, unique; function's types: symbolic function, a tradition, a rank, specificity and attractiveness of place.

Odnowa wsi i marketing miejsca - stymulatory współczesnego funkcjonowania wsi
Village Renewal and Region's Marketing - Stimulator of Modern Villages Functioning and Development

Jerzy Oleszek


Nowadays, while economical transformation is ongoing the image of the village is being changed. Factors that form conditions and quality of life should be transformed. The tool that enables realization is village renewal. This system is defined as a region's modernization and revitalization campaign. The issue of former consideration was mainly of a technical and formal aspect. Thus the main question of the taken analysis is the level of adaptation of "maturity" of the region to renewal process. The object of analyze is as follows: level of identification of inhabitants with a village with the site, degree of social integration, and social involvement in villages' problems. The variables function's dependence was specified and the range of continuity of function was identified - it is being interpreted as a point where actions of modernization of current tendency of the village development should be taken. It was proven that the set of actions should be a system that is known as a region's marketing.

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