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1-2/2004 - Technika w architekturze krajobrazu Próby rewitalizacji / The Technics in the Landscape Architecture Trials of Revitalisation

AK12 2004   Nr 1-2/2004, vol. 8

Technika w architekturze krajobrazu
Próby rewitalizacji

The Technics in the Landscape Architecture
Trials of Revitalisation



Technika jako narzędzie kształtowania krajobrazu
Technology as an Instrument of Landscape Formation

Anna Bartoszewicz


The article discusses a changing understanding of technology significance with reference to the landscape and environment: from the instrument of “bringing nature under control” to the mean of its protection and bringing back to equilibrium. Technical ways of wastelands reclamation and revitalisation are discussed together with the examples of using recovered areas for recreational purposes and their meaning in the city structure – the case of a liquid fuels base in Gdańsk and the Seaside Strip between Brzeźno and Jelitkowo in Gdańsk. Land reclamation techniques and the conditions of their applications, methods of city soil detoxification with phytoremediation methods between them are also presented. The technologies take advantage of living organisms (plants) ability to remove contaminants from the environment. Also methods of hydrobotanical waste-water treatment and sludge utilisation are based on self-purification properties of the environment. By choosing species of the proper kind, also energetic meaning of the systems is possible to achieve. Finally, ethical aspects of decisions concerning particular technical solutions application are discussed and also, connected with them, notions of eco-ethics, ecological ethics, environmental ethics and the conception of so called proper technology application; as well as a place of technology in the context of revitalisation, understood as a continuous process taking social, economic, administrative and ecological sphere under consideration.


Koncepcja rewitalizacji Fortu Prusy na terenie Twierdzy Nysa
Conception of Revitalization of Prusy Fort in the Area of Nysa Fortress

Jerzy Potyrała
Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak


In works concerning revitalization of fortification objects appropriate management of “greens” is of great importance especially in the first phase of activities. Self-sown trees and bushes of various age, spontaneously sprout in the area of the fort. They visually distort the form of embankments, and their roots contribute to the destruction of walls. However such a green area which is dozens of years old becomes a habitat for many species of mammals and birds. In that case it is forbidden to destroy it rashly. Stipulation of conscious fortification’s historical planting, defining the place of cutting down trees and bushes and places where the existing ecosystem is to be preserved, marking up sightseeing routes and determining functions for particular fortification objects are assignments to be done at the very beginning in the area of Prusy fort.

Wiatrak wieżowy jako zabytek techniki Opolszczyzny
Tower-Windmill as the Technics Relikt of Opole Region

Janusz Gubański


Windmills belong to objects, which except historical and technical qualities show the evolution of the material culture of the region, own landscape’s values. By decades they were buildings, which create the locality landscape and they distinguish a particular situating, proportions of blocks and construction’s solutions. Some apart from numerous buildings, so-called kozlak windmills and seldom found paltrak windmills, some Dutch-type ones also exist. Their role in the cultural landscape of the Opole region is presented. In particular their structure, both technical and technological system, location, state of preservation and way of proposed use, is also shown.

Wieże telegrafu optycznego w krajobrazie Francji
Optical Telegraph Towers in the French Landscape

Danuta Herkt-Knapp


Long distance information transfer was known already since ancient times. People were always trying to improve the transfer going farther and faster. Some methods were based on smoke or light signals, other methods used horses or couriers carrying post for special fee. Considerable improvement in an information transfer came in 18th century when Claude Chappe invented and patented the optical telegraph system. It was a visual communication network based on towers equipped with so called semaphores. Very quickly this invention gained an acknowledgement of the French government. In the beginning of 19th century, 29 largest towns gained permanent telegraphic link to Paris. Around 50 years later, the optical telegraph system of C. Chappe was replaced by technically more advanced and easier to use electrical telegraph. Monumental towers of optical telegraph lost their prestigious place in the landscape with the time. Technical and technological development only helped their destruction. Somebody might not know that the optical telegraph system of Chappe brothers was the first well organized communication network.

Poprzemysłowe dziedzictwo Żyrardowa
The Post-industrial Heritage of Żyrardów

Renata Gubańska


Żyrardów is a model example of an industrial complex together with its administrative-social-tenement backup; carried out on the basis of perfectly measured conception both in respect of spatial setting and introduced architectural and functional solutions. The main factor which contributed to the inception of the town and its development was the foundation of the linen products factory. With time the whole settlement and modern infrastructure was built for its maintenance. In objects belonging to the factory there appears their clear variability in regard to the size of blocks and minuteness of architectural details. Żyrardów, intensively developed in the 19th century was one of very few worker’s settlements in Poland, carried out according to the project of perfect cities. Currently the cultural sphere of works is undergoing degradation. To prevent progressive destruction it is advisable to formulate a revitalisation program – a plan of spatial development of the whole complex of former works. At the same time we have to remember the appropriate exploitation of the cultural sphere to preserve the antique character of the ideal composition and unique values of industrial architecture.

Park Krajobrazowy Duisburg jako przykład rewitalizacji terenów przemysłowych
Landchaftspark Duisburg-Nord as the Example of the Revitalization of Industrial Terrains

Arkadiusz Górny


Landschaftspark is situated in the most industrial part of Germany in Ruhr (Nordrein Westfalen). The park was created as a result of closing the old iron ore processing factory. After some time, after the factory was closed,a problem occurred as to what to do with the empty halls, chimneys and other “strange” devices, which had successfully grown into the landscape. The problem was enormous because with time deserted factories haunted with emptiness and became dangerous not only to the environment but also to children playing there. The whole area of the old factory together with terrain belonging to it consists of 200 ha, both occupied by post-industrial old buildings and green areas. It would have been a huge undeveloped area and the idea of the creation of the park allowed preservation of historical spatial configuration and maximal usage of post-factory plot. As it was mentioned earlier, the park performs many functions in the city, among others : leisure, educational or cultural. Creation of the described complex allows the landscape architects (and not only them) to view the problem of old and ruined factories from an absolutely new perspective, which is creation from nothing or as it can be said from something very ugly and unwanted – something interesting, in this case a beautiful post-industrial park where everybody can find some attraction for himself.

Wpływ rozwoju techniki na zmiany w architekturze krajobrazu wsi
Influence of Technique Development on Changes in Country Landscape Architecture
Eleonora Gonda-Soroczyńska


Development of technique had and still has a great influence on changes in landscape architecture, dealing with shaping space surrounding us for the needs of a human being. It directly or indirectly influences his pleasure, calculable financial benefits, in harmony with regulations of nature and environment protection. These changes are observed both in the architecture of cities and villages. Currently we are managing intensive expansion of technique onto rural areas, directly causing changes in their landscape. It will be particularly noticed in the next few years, especially in the aspect of Polish accession to the European Union, the appearance of new technical possibilities which are closely connected to economical possibilities (Union funds). One of elements of this expansion will be using the existing or propagating new materials, especially those coming from plants which are to constitute a new type of ecological fuel material. Together with its functioning new machines, devices and objects (i.e. briquette factories, pallet factories, a network of new ecological refineries, a network of new ecological fuel stations, e.t.c.) will appear in villages. It is possible that these local predispositions will enforce changes in housing and institutional infrastructure. All these factors can cause transformation of the present farmer from food producer to agro-power engineer. With all these changes in the rural landscape we cannot forget about it’s essential element, about the cultural value (palaces, courts, granges, court’s parks, trees, also field trees, watercourses, small water reservoirs, water buildings) perseverance, simultaneously caring for preserving flora and fauna and valuable ecosystems.

Reklama w krajobrazie
Advertisement in Landscape

Magdalena Anioł


The author has attempted to present the influence of the advertisement on the cultural landscape and formulate directions of actions which consider its influence on its surroundings. She analysed types of advertisements existing in the landscape starting with free standing boards, through billboards up to murals. She plied examples from the Gostyń area and Wrocław centre. Actions on behalf of minimizing the degradating influence of advertisements on the cultural landscape were proposed in conclusions.

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