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1-2/2002 - Miasto i strefa podmiejska / City and Suburban Zone

AK12 2002   Nr 1-2/2002, vol. 4

Miasto i strefa podmiejska
City and Suburban Zone



Rezolucja w sprawie zrównoważonego rozwoju strefy podmiejskiej oraz roli i zadań architekta krajobrazu
Resolution in the Matter of Balanced Development of a Suburban Zone and the Role and Assignments of a Landscape Architect

Alina Drapella-Hermansdorfer


Soon almost 80% of Europeans will be living in urbanized environments, most of all on city outskirts and suburban zones. Simultaneously, since the first Earth Summit (1992) it has been expected that further social and economical development, including investments – must have a stable balanced character with possibilities for the adaptation of nature. Reasonable spatial management belongs to strategic elements of balanced development and as such it can be compared with protection of non-revolving sources of energy. Therefore, non-develpoped areas can be seen in categories of national heritage, irrespective of whether they represent particular natural or cultural values. The landscape of Poland is our common good for which we are all responsible. It is a reflection of our culture – our abilities and negligence. So it should, as soon as possible, become a subject of integral planning, in which the participation of a landscape architect is a European standard.

Identyfikacja przestrzeni "pomiędzy", czy formy przenikania?
Identification of Space "Among", Whether Forms of Penetration?

Wojciech Pawłowski
Adam Szymski


However occurrence of space “in-between” in architectonical assumptions can give a positive picture, in town-planning it is necessary to strive to dispose of such accidental and unwanted sets. It is essential to use tourist and natural values of suburban communes to create natural directions when shaping hiking and cycling tourist routes which originate in an urban structure fluently transforming in areas of a high landscape and natural values. In a similar way it is needed to shape development of building estate sets which should harmoniously connect a city with local terrain. Together with economical development of an urban center it is obvious that its borders will be submitted to changes. Former suburban areas will be imbided by the city organism, but the area mentioned earlier will not disappear but undergo displacement. Therefore the suburban landscape needs to be formed in such a way that it has a natural and coherent connection with suburban terrains. In such a way it will be possible to avoid town-planning chaos in a new city structure and gain an ordered spatial organism, which exposes landscape values, fluently changing from one set to another. Such effects are not possible to be gained without elaborating a common, uniform plan of development of the areas of an urban complex with suburban communities.

Zrównoważona rehabilitacja przedmieść - powrót do kultury europejskiej
Sustainable Rehabilitation of Outskirts - Reeuropeisation Cultural Landscape

Wojciech Kosiński


Outskirts surrounding towns in post-communist East Europe, represent most deteriorated landscape, more destructed then townscape, villages and open landscapes. However transformation in this region since 1989 brings several positive features in space, but unfortunately outskirts and provincial landscapes present not cultural landscape, but chaotic, nomans land without identity. Restoring this areas is exceptionaly difficult, because they are huge and complex. But province is most significant indicator of quality in the country – social, economic and last but not least – aesthetic. So the way from postcommunist East Europe towards free United Europe, goes through this rehabilitation. In our outskirts and province there are several factors – elements of space, which spoil the cultural landscape. This elements need reparation, which opens a great chance – reeuropeisation the East.
1/ Housing – communist modell; blocks, and extensive, chaotic houses, covering areas between towns and villages.
2/ Housing – postcommunist 
modell; pseudo-American condominiums collective or row houses, intensive, but totaly cut of from urban or rural structures.
3/ Market buildings; 
as well pseudo-American modell, located far from urban centres, brutaly dominating landscape, as blocks of flats built in communism.
4/ Market 
areas, “stock markets” where people sell cars, or green products. This are mainly primitive large squares without landscape values.
5/ Traffic 
lines, areas and facilities, as motorways check-in centres, airportrs, and harbours.
6/ Agriculture areas, mainly 
turned from natural growing culture, into semi-industrial production using pesticides, concentrated in monotonous green houses, also without landscape values.
7/ Parks and forest 
areas dominated with meadows, trees and water, as well gardens and cemeteries. Green terrains play double role: at first they serve as ecological sources for nearby towns, eg. circular green belts and diagonal natural corridors offering fresh air and supplay of salubrious waters; secondly they are used for numerous types of health service, recreation, spacy sports, and tourism. 
Conclusions. 1. Traditional, classical European town means harmonious “Gestalt” of built up area, and clear edge between it and open surrounding. Eventual “fringes” are logical urban or rural settlements with identity and beauty. This model still exists in leading Westeuropean countries. 2. Communism together with false interpretation of Modern Movement occured with blocks of flats surrounding towns, and with uncontrolled dispersion of chaotic family-houses, around towns in open landscape. 3. Postcommunism during first decade of transformation in Easteuropean countries occures in suburbs with pseudo-American concepts oriented for fast money only, not for quality of landscape. 4. The most logical idea for better future of cultural landscapes in suburbs, fringes, outskirts and province is rehabilitation according to evergreen pattern of European town-and-landscape design. It has doble advantage: it will make the landscape more efficient and beautiful, also it will be significant prove that standards in East European countries become closer to these in United Europe.

Zielone przedmieścia Śląska
Silesia`s Green Suburbs

Wiesława Strabel
Jacek Włodarczyk


The quality of the area in which we live can be determined in relation to suburban zones putting forward the problem
– how to reconcile the growing attractivity for investments in suburban areas with those still green open spaces, so far without any investments, without reducing their natural and landscape values?
– how to develop without any devastations? 
Such is our proposal of setting up a programme to develop those areas adjacent to towns. We want to illustrate this by examples of solutions in the Upper Silesian Municipal Area. The most important matter is to set up new landscape standards, new spatial Values referring to classical ideas of upgrading our towns, so that they might come up to modern times and a harmonious development. As a tool for such a planning may serve detailed and general plans of towns as a legal basis of their creation, the final effect being not only the health of their inhabitants, but also attractive outskirts of these human settlementst. Studies which have been undertaken indicate distinctly the necessity of cooperation and solidary endeavour of all the participants in this creative process, i.e. the shaping of suburban zones.

Zrównoważone formy funkcjonowania miasta i jego otoczenia
Balanced Forms of Functioning of the City and its Surroundings
Anna Górka


The aim of the work is a critical review of special conceptions when balancing the surroundings of a city. The characteristics of the models: “compact city, urban village, New urbanism, perm- culture, jurisdiction, city in a rural enclave and two architectonical and city-planning structures which build a city tissue” have been generally presented. The idea of balancing a city reminds us that it is itself a part of the world of nature which has been transformed by mankind. A traditional dichotomy city (artificial environment, active element) – a village (part of the world of nature, passive element) submitted to an urban-rural partnership. It gives bilateral benefits and a new chance for a better quality of life in the whole “ecological region” Turning to the quality of life nowadays and in the future, revival, revitalization, re-urbanism of not only city centers but whole regions, seems to be an overriding aim of the strategy of balancing the development. The foregoing conclusions incline us to formulate a postulate of variety of forms to balance a city, shaped on the basis of culture conditioned ideas about the quality of life. Bestowal of a leading part to the social-cultural aspect in defining special characteristics of a balanced settlement, creates a chance for more integral research and project approach.

Strefa podmiejska miasta Krakowa - wybrane aspekty stanu krajobrazu
Suburban Zone of Cracow City - Chosen Aspects of Landscape State

Barbara Rzegocińska-Tyżuk


A counteraction to spontaneous development of buildings and expansion of suburban zones – is one of the aims of a special policy introducing an order and guarantee of balanced city development. An analyses of the landscape state of suburban zones in cities in Poland, including Cracow – unfortunately shows a lack of such counteractions. Legislation regulations also do not favour the accurate shaping of the spatial picture of suburban zones. Apart from general legal, statutory (connected to regulations of European union countries) adaptations, there also exists a need for more detailed legal regulations. They should also regard, among others, preservation of environmental values – identity of suburban areas and local cultural values (examples of such are for instance “sub-Cracovian” Bronowice – a setting for the drama “Wesele” by Stanisław Wyspaiński).


Bramy miasta - akcenty przestrzenne w strefie podmiejskiej
The Town Gates - Spacial Accents in Suburban

Tomasz Opania


Tomasz Opania is the author of a project and a builder of three sculptures situated at tollbooths in Milicz – Lower Silesia voiewodeship. The realization is a result of a Polish-wide contest organized by the City Culture Centre, represented by director G. Kreska, on demand of the City Office in Milicz – represented by W. Wall, a town clerk. The contest jury, having viewed presented project proposals, accorded first prize to artist sculptor Waldemar Szmatula and second prize together with realization to sculptor Tomasz Opania.

Problemy rozwoju strefy podmiejskiej północnej części pasma przyspieszonego rozwoju Zespołu Trójmiejskiego na przykładzie gminy Wejherowo
Problems of Suburban Zone Development Embraced by Trójmiasto Agglomeration Intensive Development Belt - Wejherowo Case Study

Aleksandra Wiszniewska
Renata Giedych


The key factor of Wejherowo commune development is its situation in the main layer of the urbanization of Gdański complex, based on route 6. It reflects in every aspect of commune life: social, economical, ecological, special development, technical infrastructure. It is necessary to state that in recent years because of the commune’s situation in the neighbourhood of big cites, the following functions connected with its situation occurred and will be developed in the area of the commune:
1) development of one-family residential areas of suburban character,
2) development of industrial and storage-warehouse function, 
development of recreational and tourist function for servicing, most of all one-day or weekend leisure of inhabitants of neighbouring cities,
4) development of holiday homes structure.
The situation of communes in the neighbourhood of cities also causes the necessity for preservation of the function of nature protection in its area, which contributes to preserving natural resources, and in consequence, improvement of aerosanitary conditions in cities, which simultaneously influences preservation of recreational and tourist values of the terrain.

Niezbędne warunki pozytywnych zmian krajobrazu strefy podmiejskiej
Necessary Conditions of Positive Change of Landscape Within City Region

Sławomir Gzell


All bigger Polish cities are facing the „urban sprawl” within their metropolitan regions. The question is how to stop this formless proliferation, which without social coherence and cultural integrity covers what we use to call “open landscape” around traditional, relatively compact cities build areas. There are not only social and economical reasons of the situation. We could name also in Polish cities: excessive dispersion of urban capital, excessive number of industrial areas still situated in central locations, increasing housing density on the city peripheries, insufficient service/commercial areas, insufficient infrastructure, land market regulation obstacles, budgetary deficit, etc. Generally: a clear long-term economic state policy which might stimulate the hoped for urban development is as yet not existent. Two groups of conditions could make a change or at lest minimize unwanted effects of city dispersion (as it is almost impossible to believe that the trend would be reversed). The first group belongs to city and national economy and can be called “incentives system”. To initiate the system following issues have to be solved first: revitalization of dilapidated housing and industrial areas, relocation of industrial areas, upgrade of existing infrastructure in areas with a high demand factor, harmony between regulations and market preferences, etc. The second group is more connected to physical planning. One could say that “proper” plans: should be real planning tools for local government and societies, should cover all problems occurring in the market economy, should foresee future activities of small and medium-sized businesses, not to mention global megatrends which should be introduced to plans as well.


Równoważenie relacji miasta i okolicy w koncepcji rozwoju obszaru metropolitarnego Polski środkowej
Balancing the Relation of the City and its Development Surroundings at the Conception of the of a Metropolitan Region of Mid Poland
Jacek Damięcki
Marek Piwowarski


The essence of the project presented in the article is regrouping the set of three cities Warsaw, Łódź and Radom in conurbation set via a constituting inter-medial knot – international airport in the place of an army airport which exists today ( Nowe Miasto upon Pilica). The project limits itself to the essential elements of restructuring, which are the airport together with arteries connecting cities and high speed train routes which connect terminals in the cities with the airport. The presented conception is a proposal of reorientation strategy and activation of policy of spatial management of the country by building a Metropolitan Zone of mid Poland. The value of the project is in the fact that it does not require the support of long term development prognosis, which is always burdened with a huge dose of uncertainty. The proposed strategy relies on grouping the scattered potential which exist nowadays. In this sense it is not a leading but a threshold investment. The network set opens the way for the flexible power balance of many factors.

Przedmieście w mieście zwartym
Suburb in Compact City

Grażyna Schneider-Skalska


Modern and future cities, as a basic place of habitation for most people, create a sociological, special and ecological problem. Around 1900 only 10% of people lived in them, currently this number reaches 50%, and after 2005, the inhabitants of cities will consist of 2/3rds of earth’s population. Whole regions are subjected to further movement to cities and an increase in the number of city dwellers, especially in big cities, allowing the highest possibilities of finding work and social promotion. Extreme examples of giant cities are in South America, Asia or Africa. It seems that the 21st century will not bring revolutionary changes in the process of shaping and infrastructure of the cities. New cities will not be created, we will be solving old problems in old cities. And those basic problems will be a clean environment (air, water, soil, communication, contact with nature and a need for flats, in various proportions. Cities which offer an appropriate number of flats will have to modernize them, offering better and better living conditions, which means in developed and rich societies a healthy environment, contact with nature, good public transport and high esthetical values, but also the possibility of choice. All those actions can be carried out by various means. A discussion on the subject of directions of development of cities and at the same time the role of suburbs is not ended.


Problemy przeobrażeń architektonicznych krajobrazu okolic Krakowa na przełomie wieków
The Architectural Changes Problems in the Cracow Landscape Region

Danuta Kupiec-Hyła


The Cracow situation in the geographical conditions of Cracow-Częstochowa Jura had a specific influence on its development. Huge variety in landscape and variations in sub regional settlement forms and types of building connected to it, created,over the centuries, a characteristic type of “Jurassic architecture”, strongly inscribed into local cultural and building traditions. High transport availability in Cracow as a place of work contributed to the development of existing settlement units. The former country landscape of the area changed unnoticed into a chaotically built suburban zone. In December 1981 a team of Jurassic Landscape Parks was appointed to protect this beautiful region from further devasta tion. A set of benchmark projects was elaborated in the form of a catalogue “House as a Dream”, which was an unprecedented occurrence in this area of the country.

Dynamika zmian w krajobrazie strefy podmiejskiej Szczecina
Dynamics of Changes in the Landscape of the Suburban Zone, Szczecin

Helena Freino


A landscape always clearly reflects the state of the economy with all its consequences for the space, therefore it is difficult not to notice transformations in the appearance of our cities, towns and surrounding areas. A lively urbanization of many rural areas has occurred and is still occurring, which has undoubtedly brought economical vivification, but also a series of objectionable occurrences. The key ones are: lack of spatial order and disharmony in landscape, which are an external expression of increasing amorphism of spatial sets in Polish cities. It is certain that occurrences described in the present article cannot be avoided in the nearest future. However there is a necessity to counteract against them, and the priorities in appropriate suburban zone landscape shaping include: stronger accent on landscape issues in Polish legislation and strengthening the feeling of identity among local societies.


Źródła nowej tożsamości architektury podmiejskiej (literackie inspiracje w architekturze krajobrazu) Sources of New Identity of Architecture in Suburban Areas (Literal Inspirations in Landscape Architecture)
Andrzej Ziemiański


Between town and village comes into existence a new, strange kind of architecture. Its interesting to find a sources of this kind of designs. Its not a town projects nor suburban ones. Its a connection between temples, mansions and palaces. All of these investment was made by the private inwestors without architects. From where they such strange inspiration? Maybe from literature.

Zagrożenia wartości estetyczno-kompozycyjnych krajobrazu w strefach podmiejskich
Endangerments of Aesthetical and Composition Values of the Landscape in Suburban Areas

Katarzyna Rozmarynowska


From the observations it can be concluded that the landscape of suburban areas is submitted to snappy, often uncontrolled changes, which result in endangerment of its aesthetical value. The reasons for such occurrence can be found in the social-political, planning and legal, and economical sphere, and also in the lack of pro-landscape consciousness in society and among the people responsible for protection and landscape shaping. In order to protect the areas surrounding us from devastation, an intimate change is needed, by viewing not only the landscape but also the state of our civic consciousness, not only in the domain of landscape and cultural heritage protection, but also in a much wider aspect: political, social and economical, as only a wealthy, civic society with responsibility for the common good and being conscious of its needs, rights and duties is able to care effectively for the landscape. That is why, apart from raising the general level of education about the value of the landscape, work on increasing civic consciousness in needed. Wishing to make our landscapes more beautiful, we have to consider the education of local societies, clerks, self-government activists, youth and people who professionally deal with spatial planning, among them also architects, city planners, ecologists, geographers, naturalists and admirers of antiquity, among whom there should be real consent about the fact that the final effect of all action in an area should be a beautiful, harmonic landscape.

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